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Literatur und Schriften


Paralaudakia BAIG, WAGNER, ANANJEVA & BÖHME, 2012


Paralaudakia (himalayana) badakhshana (ANDERSON & LEVITON,1969)

Badakhshana Rock Agama

KHAN, B., AHMED, W., ABLIMIT, A., FAKHRI, S. & H. ALI (2012): Range extension of four highland agamid lizards in Shimshal Pamir, Pakistan. – Journal of Arid Land, 4 (1): 77-84.

As part of the Sino-Pak trans-boundary cooperation for conservation and sustainable development in Pamir border region, World Wild Fund (WWF)-Pakistan conducted a preliminary social, economic and ecological survey in the Shimshal-Pamir Lakes area in July 2009. The purpose of the study was to explore potentials and opportunities for future collaborative conservation of some species, habitats and high altitude ecosystems in the border region between China and Pakistan. The two-week herpetological study in the Shimshal Pamir area of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) along Pakistan-China border was an integral part of the survey, conducted exclusively to document reptilian fauna with a special emphasis on investigating their occurrence, distribution and status in the study area. Field investigations were performed during daytime when it was hot enough and reptiles were active, basking or feeding. A total of 15 specimens belonging to four species of the Agamidae family were captured by striking stones and beating bushes with sticks. Collected specimens were preserved using 10% formalin solution, tagged with field information and stored in Zoological Survey Department, Karachi for future reference. Laboratory investigations were carried out for pholidosic counts and morphometric measurements. A detailed review of relevant literature, habitat characteristics and laboratory investigations revealed the occurrence of Laudakia himalayana, L. pakistanica, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana at 4,082 m, 4,172 m, 4,005 m and 4,240 m asl, respectively, which are much higher altitudes as compared to the previously reported heights of 3,353 m, 3,200 m, 2,500 m and 2,400 m asl. The terrain offers a variety of ecological barriers, in the form of fast and freezing running waters and massive glaciers with peculiar harsh climatic conditions prevailing for nine months of the year, which restricts species migration and thus increases endemism. Although one of the four species recorded from the study area, i.e. L. pakistanica is endemic to Pakistan, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana are new records from Shimshal, Pakistan, so a detailed investigation is suggested for further herpetological records from the study area.


Paralaudakia (himalayana) bochariensis (NIKOLSKY, 1897)


ANANJEVA, N.B. & G. PETERS (1982): Notizen über Agama chernovi aus Tadzikistan (UdSSR) und ihre Umwelt. – herpetofauna, 4 (20): 8-11.

ANANJEVA, N.B., PETERS, G. & V.T. RZEPAKOVSKY (1981):New species of the mountain agamas from Tadjikistan Agama chernovi sp. nov. – Procceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, 101: 23-27.

GOLUBEV (1998): Agama chernovi is a junior synonym of Stellio bochariensis (Sauria: Agamidae). –Hamadryad, 22: 119-120.

LIESACK, H. (1989): Agama chernovi im Terrarium. – Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig, 36 (11): 27-29. (1237)

NIKOLSKY, A.M. (1897): Stellio bochariensis n. sp. – Annuaire Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétetrsbourg, 2: 159-161.


Paralaudakia caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831)

Kaukasus-Agame / Caucasian Agama

ANANJEVA, N.B. & C.A. ATAYEV (1984): Stellio caucasius triannulatus ssp. nov. – A new subspecies of the Caucasian Agama from south-western Turkmenia. – Trudy, Zoological Institute, Akademii Nauk USSR, Leningrad, 124: 4-11.

ANANJEVA, N.B. & L.J. BORKIN (1979): Distribution and geographic variability of Agama caucasia (Eichwald, 1831). - Proc. zool. Inst., Leningrad 89: 4 - 17 (in Russ. language with Engl. summary)

ANANJEVA, N.B. & R.A. DANOV (1991): A rare case of bifurcated caudal regeneration in the Caucasian agama, Stellio caucasius. – Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden. 12: 343-356.

ANANJEVA, N.B. & S.A. KALYABINA-HAUF (2006): On the problems of the Rock Agamas of Laudakia caucasia-complex (Agamidae, Sauria). – Modern Herpetology, 5/6: 5-17.

ANANJEVA, N.B. & V.F. ORLOVA (1979): Distribution and geographic variability of Agama caucasia (Eichwald, 1831). – Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 89: 4-17. (in Russisch)

ATAEV, C. (1974): Features of hibernation of Agama caucasica in the conditions of the Kopet-Dag Range. – Ekologiya, 1974 (2): 76-78. (in Russisch).

BARAN, I., KASPAREK, M. & M. ÖZ (1989): On the distribution of four species of agama (Agamidae) in Turkey. – Zoology in the Middle East, Heidelberg, 3: 37-46.
Kurzfassung:
Die Verbreitung des Harduns, Agama stellio, der Kaukasischen Agame, A. caucasia, der Ruinenagame, A. ruderata, und des Sonnenguckers, Phrynocephalus helioscopus, in der Türkei wird durch Punktkarten dargestellt. A. stellio und A. caucasia schließen sich gegenseitig horizontal und vertikal aus. Das Areal von A. stellio wird durch die März-Isotherme von 8°C und die Juli- und August-Isothermen von 24°C definiert. A. ruderata kommt zwar in den großen, ursprünglichen Steppengebieten Zentral- und Südost-Anatoliens vor, fehlt aber in den Steppen Ost-Anatoliens.

BISCHOFF, WS. (1973): Echsen des Kaukasus 1. Kaukasusagame, Agama caucasica (Eichwald) 1831. - Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig, 20 (8): 274-275. (1241)

DE FELIPPI, F. (1868): Sulla struttura della cute dello Stellio caucasicus. – Memorie dell´ Accademia dello Scienze di Torino, 23: 363-373.

DEZFOULIAN, R., MEBERT, K., KARAMI, M., KABOLI, M. & F. AHMADZADEH (2012): Habitat factors determining the distribution of the Caucasian Agama, Laudakia caucasia, (Squamata: Agamidae) in the Sorkh-e-Hesar National Park, Tehran province, Iran. - Journal of Natural History, 46 (43/44): 2735-2747.

The distribution of the Caucasian agama (Laudakia caucasia) has been studied related to structural parameters during spring and summer 2010 in an area of 9186 ha in the Sorkh-e-Hesar National Park, Tehran province, Iran. The habitat parameters included structure properties of plant coverage, plant richness, proportional surface coverage of rock and bare soil, distance to the nearest shelter and  topography (slope, cardinal direction and altitude). In total, 92 plots were sampled and habitat suitability was analysed using binary logistic regression. Results showed that, ordered by significance, rocky coverage, bare soil and plant coverage are the most efficient factors explaining the presence of the agama species in the study area. The relationship of each significant habitat parameter is briefly discussed in the context of the lizard’s biology, and its need for thermally and structurally suitable microhabitats.

DIECKMANN, M. & M. BARTS (2015): Poster & Porträt. Paralaudakia caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831). – Iguana, 28 (1): 11-23.

EICHWALD, E. (1831): Description of Paralaudakia caucasia – In: Zoologia specialis, quam expositis animalibus tum vivis, tum fossilibus potissimuni rossiae in universum, et poloniae in specie, in usum lectionum publicarum in Universitate Caesarea Vilnensi. Zawadski, Vilnae.

ERGÜL, K.T., ALTUNIŞIK, A., GÜL, Ç., TOSUNOĞLU, M. & N. ÖZDEMIR (2018): Age Structure of the Caucasian Agama (Paralaudakia caucasia) from Elmadağ, Iğdır, Turkey: Preliminary Data from Small Sample Size. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 24 (4): 318-322.

Life history traits of lizard species, including agamid species, generally involve male-larger body size, but age of these species has not adequately been examined in each cohort. We thus conducted a skeletochronological study using 16 preserved specimens of Paralaudakia caucasia (8 males, 6 females, and 2 juveniles) captured from Elmadağ, Iğdır, Turkey. Mean snout-vent length was slightly but insignificantly larger in males (120.2 mm) than in females (115.9 mm). Maximum longevity was 10 years in males and 6 years in females. No significant difference in age structure was found between the sexes. Juveniles were 2-year old young. Mean age was 7.12 years for males and 5.33 years for females. Sexually matured individuals were found at the end of the second or third years (i.e., first reproduction occurred at 3 – 4 years). A positive correlation was detected in age and body size in both sexes, as has previously been shown in other lizard species. Our finding of age structure in P. caucasia would contribute to our understanding of life-history trait variations among lizard species.

FILIPPI, F. de (1865): Sulla struttura della cute dello Stellio Caucasicus. - Memorie della Accademia delle scienze di Torino (serie 2) 23 (2) 1866: 363-373.

FILIPPI, F. de (1867): On the structure of the skin in Stellio caucasicus. - Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (3) 19:145-146.

GABAEVA, N.S. (1970): Histogenesis of follicular epithelium and formation of vitelline membrane of Lacerta agilis and Agama caucasica oocytes. – Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol., 59 (11): 28-39. (in Russisch)

GÜL, C. & M. TOSUNOĞLU (2011): Hematological reference intervals of four agamid lizard species from Turkey. – Herpetozoa, Wien, 24 (1/2): 51-59.

HLAVICKA, P. (1990): Agama kavkazskaStellio caucasicus. – Akvarium-Terrarium, 33 (1): 28-29.

HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, S.S., FICETOLA, G.F., RASTEGAR-POUYANI, N., ANANJEVA, N.B., RASTEGAR-POUYANI, E. & R. MASROOR (2013): Environmental Suitability and Distribution of the Caucasian Rock Agama, Paralaudakia caucasia (Sauria: Agamidae) in Western and Central Asia. -  Asian Herpetological Research  4(3): 207–213.

Predictive potential distribution modeling is crucial in outlining habitat usage and establishing conservation management priorities. In this paper we provide detailed data on the distribution of the Caucasian rock agama Para­laudakia caucasia, and use species distribution models (MAXENT) to evaluate environmental suitability and potential distribution at a broad spatial scale. Locality data on the distribution of P. caucasia have been gathered over nearly its entire range by various authors from field surveys. The distribution model of P. caucasia showed good performance (AUC = 0.887), and predicted high suitability in regions mainly located in Tajikistan, north Pakistan, Afghanistan, southeast Turkmenistan, northeast Iran along the Elburz mountains, Transcaucasus (Azerbajan, Armenia, Georgia), northeastern Turkey and northward along the Caspian Sea coast in Daghestan, Russia. The identification of suitable areas for this species will help to assess conservation status of the species, and to set up management programs.

HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, S.S., YOUSEFI, M., MOHAMMADPOUR, A., MASROOR, R. & N. RASTEGAR-POUYANI (2014): Phenotypic Variation in Males of the Agamid Lizard Paralaudakia caucasia (Eichwald, 1831) Across a Wide Geographic Range. - Herpetologica, 70(4): 464-471.

Phenotypic variation can be expected among individuals of a species having a broad geographic distribution because genetic uniqueness can be exaggerated by adaptation to local environmental conditions. Paralaudakia caucasia is a widely distributed agamid species in the western Palearctic that occupies a region from Pakistan to the Lesser Caucasus. To describe the geographic variation in this taxon from Pakistan to the Lesser Caucasus, we examined 49 male P. caucasia from three regions in Iran (western Elburz, central Elburz, and eastern Elburz) and one in Pakistan. Twenty-five morphometric and meristic characters were examined using analyses of variance and principal components analysis. Of the measured characters, 21 were different among these populations. The differences among males representing the four groups indicate that these groups exhibit geographic variation corresponding to differences in environmental conditions from east to west. We suggest that future studies using more material from differentiated populations across the entire range will better elucidate how the environment has shaped this species’ morphology.

ILGAZ, C., BARAN, I., AVCI, A., OLGUN, K. & Y. KUMLUTAS (2005): On Laudakia caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831) (Sauria: Agamidae: Laudakia) specimens collected from Northeastern Anatolia. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 12 (3): 183-186.
In this study, Laudakia caucasia specimens, which were caught between Öncül and Kurtkale 5 km, Çýldýr, Vilayet Ardahan in NE Turkey was examined in terms of pholidosis characters, morphometric measurements, coloration and pattern. Specimens examined in this study were compared with specimens from Iran with regard to literature. Furthermore, the known range of the species was extended.

KHISROON, M., FAROOQI, J. & R. MASROOR (2012): Systematics, ecology and distribution of Caucasian Rock Agama, Paralaudakia caucasia in District Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. - Putaj Sciences, 19: 107-126.

An updated information on the distribution and ecology of the Caucasian rock agama, Paralaudakia caucasia, is provided from Chitral district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. The comparison of 25 morphometric measurements and scale counts of the collected specimens was carried out with its closely related species. Based on scale counts and descriptive characters, Paralaudakia caucasia is distinguishable from Paralaudakia microlepis and other related taxa on the basis of several characters. Paralaudakia caucasia is also found to be the most common and adoptable lizard in the harsh climate of Chitral district.

KREFFT, W. (1968): Kleiner Futtertip. - Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig, 15 (8): 281. (1210)

LANGERWERF, B. (1983): Über die Haltung und Zucht von Agama caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831) (Sauria: Agamidae), nebst Bemerkungen zur erfolgreichen Zucht weiterer palaearktischer Echsen. - Salamandra, Bonn, 19 (1/2): 11-20. (47-27)

LIESACK, H. (1993): Die Kaukasusagame (Stellio caucasius) – Haltung und Nachzucht. – elaphe N.F., Rheinbach, 1: 4-6.

LORENZ, D. (2006): Über Haltung und Zucht von Laudakia caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831) im Freilandterrarium in Sachsen. – elaphe N.F., Rheinbach, 14 (4): 21-24.
Zusammenfassung:
Dieser Aufsatz beschreibt meine Erfahrungen mit der Pflege von Kaukasusagamen in Menschenobhut. Dabei wurden wegen anfangs schlecht zugänglicher Informationen zu dieser Art in den ersten zwanzig Jahren relativ gemäßigte Haltungsbedingungen praktiziert, unter denen sich die Agamen auch fortpflanzten. Seit 2002 werden die Tiere bei wesentlich extremeren Temperaturen bei ganzjähriger Pflege im Freilandterrarium bei 50° 53’ N, 13° 16 O und einer Höhe von etwa 350-370 m ü.d.M. gehalten. Diese Bedingungen scheinen den natürlichen Gegebenheiten wesentlich näher zu kommen.

LORENZ, D. (2011): Haltung, Nachzucht und Verhalten von Kaukasusagamen. – elaphe N.F., Rheinbach, 19 (1): 46-50.

LUKOMSKAYA, N.Y. & E.K. ROZHKOVA (1970): Cholinoreception of tonic fibers in mixed muscles of the Steppe tortoise Testudo horsfieldi and lizard Agama caucasica. – Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 6: 303-309.

LUKOMSKAYA, N.Y. & E.K. ROZHKOVA (1970): Cholinoreception of tonic fibers in mixed muscles of the Steppe tortoise Testudo horsfieldi and lizard Agama caucasica. – J. evol. Biochem. Physiol., 6: 240-244.


MACEY, J.R., SCHULTE II, J.A., ANANJEVA; N.B., LARSON, A., RASTEGAR-POUYANI, N., SHAMMAKOV, S.M. & T.J. PAPENFUSS (1998): Phylogenetic relationships among agamid lizards of the Laudakia caucasia species group: testing hypotheses of biogeographic fragmentation and an area cladogram for the Iranian Plateau. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 10 (1): 118-131.

MACEY, J.R., SCHULTE, J.A., KAMI, H.G., ANANJEVA, N.B., LARSON, A. & T.J. PAPENFUSS (2000): Testing hypotheses for vicariant separation in the agamid lizard Laudakia caucasia from mountain ranges of the Northern Iranian plateau. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 14 (3): 479-483.

MADEL, G. & H. KLOCKENHOFF (1972): Beobachtungen an Kaukasus-Agamen, Agama c. caucasica (EICHWALD, 1831), in Afghanistan. – Aquaterra, Biberist, 9 (1): 3-7.

ORLOVA, V.F. (1981): Agama caucasia (Eichwald, 1831) – Kaukasus-Agame. – In: Böhme, W. (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Vol. 1 Echsen (Sauria) I. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden. 136-148.

OVEZMUKHAMMEDOV, A. (1974): A new species of the genus Haemogregarina (Haemogregarina cheissini n. sp.) from Agama caucasica. – Izvestiya Akad. Nauk turkmen. SSR (Biol.), 1974 (6): 81-82. (in Russisch)

PANOV, E.N. & L.Y. ZYKOVA (1995): Social organization and demography in the rock agama, Stellio caucasius. – Asiatic Herpetological Research, 6: 97-110.

PANOV, E.N. & L.Y. ZYKOVA (1995): Variability and differentiation of populations in Laudakia caucasia (Reptilia, Agamidae) complex. – Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii, 115 (3): 293-315. (in Russisch)

PANOV, E.N. & L.Y. ZYKOVA (1996): Resource partitioning and disturbance of ethological isolation in mixed populations of Laudakia caucasica and L. erythrogastra. – Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii, 116 (1): 104-120. (in Russisch)

PANOV, E.N., L.Y. ZYKOVA, GAUZER, M.E. & V.I. VASIL´EV (1987): Zone of intergradation of different forms of Stellio caucasius complex from Southwest Turkmenia. – Zoologicheski´i Zhurnal, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 66 (3): 402-411. (In Russisch)

PETZOLD, H.-G. (1981): Agama caucasica (Eichwald 1831) Kaukasus-Agame. - Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig, 28 (2): 71. (1207)

RASTEGAR-POUYANI, N. & F. TORKI (2007): Spermatogenesis without spermiogenesis in Laudakia caucasia (Reptilia: Agamidae): the role of hibernation. - Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics, 3: 37–42.

During hibernation period from Mid October to Late March, we removed testis of  Laudakia caucasia. Based on histological and statistical analyses we obtained two phases in spermatogenesis in this lizard as follows: (a) from October to December, in which the spermatogenesis is inactive and (b) from January to March, in which the spermatogenesis is active. Spermatogenesis during late hibernation occurred without spermiogenesis. An evidence for this is that the first and secondary spermatocytes were produced but lumena of the seminiferous tubules were without spermatozoa.

REED, C.A. (1956): Temporary bipedal locomotion in the lizard Agama caucasia in Iraq. – Herpetologica, 12: 128.

REZAZADEH, E., TAJBAKHS, F., BURSEY, C.R., MOBEDIADEH KIABI, B., HEMMATI, F. & F. AHMADZADEH (2012): Helminth parasites of the Caucasian Agama, Laudakia caucasia (Squamata: Agamidae), from Iran. – Comparative Parasitology, 79 (1): 160-163.

Twenty-two Laudakia caucasia (Agamidae) from Iran were examined for helminths and found to harbor 3 species of Nematoda: Skrjabinodon pigmentatus, Spauligodon lacertae, and Thelandros baylisi. Laudakia caucasia represents a new host record for Sk. pigmentatus and Sp. lacertae; Iran is a new locality record for all 3 nematode species. Thelandros baylisi had the highest prevalence of infection (91%) followed by Sk. pigmentatus (45%) and Sp. lacertae (36%).

SCHLEICH, H.-H. (1979): Feldherpetologische Beobachtungen in Persien, nebst morpholo-gischen Daten zu den Agamen Agama agilis, A. caucasica und A. erythrogaster. - Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main, 15 (4): 237-253.

SCHNEEWEISS, N. (1997): Vergesellschaftung von Kaukasusagamen Laudakia caucasica und Steinsperlingen Petronia petronia im Schlafquartier. – herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 19 (110): IV. (02.717)

SCHLEICH, H.-H. (1979): Geographic distribution. Sauria. Agama caucasica (Caucasian agama). – Herpetological Review, 10 (2): 60.
In Georgia (Caucasus) Laudakia caucasica and Petronia petronia were observed to use together a nocturnal resting place in a crevice.

THIEME, W. (1980): Die Kaukasusagame Agama caucasica, in der Natur und im Terrarium. - herpetofauna, 2 (8): 27-29. (1109)

WEGNER, U. (1990): Kaukasusagamen (Stellio caucasia EICHWALD 1831) im Terrarium. – Sauria, Berlin, 12 (2): 7-9.

ZYKOVA, L.Y. & E.N. PANOV (1990): On possible hybridization between the agamas Stellio caucasius and S. erythrogaster. – Zoologicheski´i Zhurnal, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 69 (7): 103-106. (in Russisch)

ZYKOVA, L.Y. & E.N. PANOV (1991): Long-term stuidy of growth of Caucasian Agama, Stellio caucasius. – Zool. Zh., 70 (12): 81-90. (in Russisch)


Paralaudakia erythrogaster (NIKOLSKY, 1896)

Redbelly Rock Agama

AGHILI, H., RASTEGAR-POUYANI, N., RAJABIZADEH, M., KAMI, H.G. & B.H. KIAN (2010): Sexual dimorphism in Laudakia erythrogastra (Sauria: Agamidae) from Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeastern Iran. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 17 (1): 51-59.

GORELOV, Y.K. & V.S: LUKAREVSKY (1990): On occurence of Stellio erythrogaster in the Soviet part of Eastern Kopet-Dagh. - Izvestia Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, 1990 (6): 63. (in Russisch)

NIKOLSKY, A.M. (1896): Diagnoses Reptilium et Amphibiorum novorum in Persia orientali a N. Zarudny collectorum. – Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 4: 369-372. (in lateinisch)

PANOV, E.N. & L.Y. ZYKOVA (1996): Resource partitioning and disturbance of ethological isolation in mixed populations of Laudakia caucasica and L. erythrogastra. – Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii, 116 (1): 104-120. (in Russisch)

RADCHENKO, N.M. (1973): New data on parasites of Agama erythrogastra. (Squamata, Agamidae). – Zoologicheskij Zh., 59 (9): 1398-1400. (in Russisch)

PAPENFUSS, T., BAFTI, S., ANANJEVA, N. & N.ORLOV (2010): Paralaudakia erythrogaster. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T164645A5915348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T164645A5915348. en

SCHLEICH, H.-H. (1977): Meine Echse schläft im Stehen. – Aquarien Magazin, Stuttgart, 11 (2): 76-77.

SCHLEICH, H.-H. (1979): Feldherpetologische Beobachtungen in Persien, nebst morphologischen Daten zu den Agamen Agama agilis, A. caucasica und A. erythrogaster. - Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main, 15 (4): 237-253.

TUNIYEV, B.S., ATAYEV, C.A. & S.M. SHAMMAKOV (1991): Stellio erythrogaster nurgelddievi ssp. (Agamidae, Sauria) – new subspecies from eastern Kopet-Dagh. – Izvestiya Akademiya Nauk Turkmenistan SSR (Biol.), 6: 50-60.

ZYKOVA, L.Y. & E.N. PANOV (1990): On possible hybridization between the agamas Stellio caucasius and S. erythrogaster. – Zoologicheski´i Zhurnal, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 69 (7): 103-106. (in Russisch)


Paralaudakia himalayana (STEINDACHNER, 1867)

Himalayan Agama

DUJSEVAYEVA, T.N., ANANJEVA, N.B. & L.V. MIROSHNICHENKO (2007): Studies on spezialized epidermal derivatives in iguanian lizards. I. Gross morphology, topography and histology of callose scales in the Asian Rockm Agama, Laudakia himalayana (Steindachner, 1869) (Squamata: Agamidae). – Amphibia-Reptilia, 28: 537-546.

FLÄSCHENDRÄGER, A. & M.H. HOFFMANN (2018): Anmerkungen zur Höhenverbreitung von Paralaudakia himalayana (STEINDACHNER, 1867). – Sauria, Berlin, 40 (3): 75-77.

KHAN, B., AHMED, W., ABLIMIT, A., FAKHRI, S. & H. ALI (2012): Range extension of four highland agamid lizards in Shimshal Pamir, Pakistan. – Journal of Arid Land, 4 (1): 77-84.

As part of the Sino-Pak trans-boundary cooperation for conservation and sustainable development in Pamir border region, World Wild Fund (WWF)-Pakistan conducted a preliminary social, economic and ecological survey in the Shimshal-Pamir Lakes area in July 2009. The purpose of the study was to explore potentials and opportunities for future collaborative conservation of some species, habitats and high altitude ecosystems in the border region between China and Pakistan. The two-week herpetological study in the Shimshal Pamir area of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) along Pakistan-China border was an integral part of the survey, conducted exclusively to document reptilian fauna with a special emphasis on investigating their occurrence, distribution and status in the study area. Field investigations were performed during daytime when it was hot enough and reptiles were active, basking or feeding. A total of 15 specimens belonging to four species of the Agamidae family were captured by striking stones and beating bushes with sticks. Collected specimens were preserved using 10% formalin solution, tagged with field information and stored in Zoological Survey Department, Karachi for future reference. Laboratory investigations were carried out for pholidosic counts and morphometric measurements. A detailed review of relevant literature, habitat characteristics and laboratory investigations revealed the occurrence of Laudakia himalayana, L. pakistanica, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana at 4,082 m, 4,172 m, 4,005 m and 4,240 m asl, respectively, which are much higher altitudes as compared to the previously reported heights of 3,353 m, 3,200 m, 2,500 m and 2,400 m asl. The terrain offers a variety of ecological barriers, in the form of fast and freezing running waters and massive glaciers with peculiar harsh climatic conditions prevailing for nine months of the year, which restricts species migration and thus increases endemism. Although one of the four species recorded from the study area, i.e. L. pakistanica is endemic to Pakistan, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana are new records from Shimshal, Pakistan, so a detailed investigation is suggested for further herpetological records from the study area.

LUZHIN, B.P. (1955): Agama himalayana in Alaisk Vailey (Pamir). – Trud. Inst. Zool. Peros. Kirgiz Acad. Sci., 3: 61-63. (in Russisch)

STEINDACHNER, F. (1867): Description of Laudakia himalayana. – In: Wüllerstorf-Urbair, B. von: Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857,1858,1859. Zoologischer Theil. Erster Band (Wirbelthiere). Wien 1869.

WAGNER, P. (2014): Paralaudakia himalayana (STEINDACHNER, 1867) Himalaja Agame, Himalayan Agama. – Sauria, Berlin, 36 (2): 1-2.


Paralaudakia lehmanni (NIKOLSKY, 1896)

Turkestan Rock Agama

ANANJEVA, N.B. & E.A. GOLYNSKY (2013): Analysis of distribution of the Turkestan rock agama, Paralaudakia lehmanni (Nikolsky, 1896): using of Maxent modeling. - Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 317 (4): 426–437.

Methods of modeling and predicting the potential ranges to determine the limiting factors and conservation priorities are increasingly important in modern herpetological studies. In present paper we provide an analysis and forecast of the potential distribution of the Central Asian rock agamid species, – Turkestan rock agama (Paralaudakia lehmanni), and analyze the characteristics of its habitat preference using Maxent (www.cs.princeton.edu/ ~ schapire / maxent). We used the data from 19 bioclimatic variables (Bio 1–19) obtained from the database WorldClim (http://www.worldclim.org/ current), and the geographical coordinates of 70 localities from the whole distribution range, explored at different times. This method allows identifying the factors that have a major impact on the distribution of living organisms. The constructed model of distribution of P. lehmanni revealed enough good performance (AUC = 0.990 at variance 0.004) and predicted that the most suitable Turkestan rock agama habitats are located in the eastern Uzbekistan, western and central Tajikistan, as well as in adjacent areas of the western Kyrgyzstan and northern Afghanistan.

ANDERSON, S.C. & PAPENFUSS, T.J. (2010): Paralaudakia lehmanni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T170408A6778428. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T170408A6778428.en

BÖHME, W., ESSER, S. & P. WAGNER (2013): Zur Kenntnis der zentralasiatischen Wirtelschwanzagame Paralaudakia lehmanni (NIKOLSKY, 1896) und ihrer Nachzucht im Tierhaus des Zoologischen Forschungsmuseums Alexander Koenig (ZFMK) in Bonn. – Sauria, Berlin, 35 (2): 45-50.

KORNEVA, L.G. & B. RADZHABOV (1974): On the occurrence of Agama lehmanni in the Fergana Valley. – J. Uzbeksii biol. Zh., 19743 (2):80. (In Russisch)

NIKOLSKY, A.M. (1896): Sur deux nouveaux reptiles du Turkestan.  - Annuaire Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. (1896) 1: XIII-XV (in russisch).

OBST, F.J. (1989): Das Portrait. Stellio lehmanni NIKOLSKIJ. – Sauria, Berlin, 11 (1): 1-2.


Paralaudakia microlepis (BLANFORD,1874)

Smallscaled Rock Agama

ANANJEVA, N.B. & J. ATAJEV (1984): Stellio caucasica triannulatus - A new subspecies of the caucasian Agama from South- Western Turkmenia. - Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 124: 4-11.

BLANFORD, W.T. (1874): Descriptions of new lizards from Persia and Baluchistàn. - Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (4) 13: 453-455.

CHEATSAZAN, H., V. RABANI & A. MAHJOORAZAD (2008): Sexual dimorphism and sexual dichromatism in the Small-scaled Rock Agama, Laudakia microlepis (Blanford, 1874) (Sauria: Agamidae). - Zoology in the Middle East, 45: 41-48.

SANCHOOLI, N., RASTEGAR-POUYANI, E. & S. HOSSEINIAN (2018): Genetic variability among Paralaudakia microlepis (Blanford, 1874) (Sauria: Agamidae) populations in the Iranian Plateau. – Zootaxa, 4526 (2): 245-250.

The small scaled rock agama, Paralaudakia microlepis, is an agamid lizard distributed across many parts of the Iranian Plateau. In the present paper, our aim is to study the genetic variability among different populations of this species in Iran. Based on the ND4 mitochondrial gene fragment, we uncovered high levels of genetic variability between three main clades of the species in Iran. Based on these results, the South Khorasan and Fars populations diverged firstly and then the Kerman and the Sistan-Baluchestan populations split. This pattern of divergence suggests an important role of the Zagros Mountain in the differentiation among populations of P. microlepis in Iran during the mid-Miocene. The Zagros uplift and subsequent aridification in the Iranian Plateau might have been involved in the variation among populations of this species because they are restricted to specific ecological niches. The greater genetic distances between the Fars and South Khorasan populations indicated that they have the potential to be described as different subspecies of P. microlepis. Comparison of all P. microlepis, P. erythrogastra and P. caucasia populations using both molecular and morphological characters is needed to make a strong taxonomic decision on the clade as a whole.


Paralaudakia stoliczkana (BLANFORD, 1875)

Mongolia Rock Agama

SMIRINA, E.M. & N.B. ANANJEVA (2007): Growth layers in different bones ansd acrodont teeth of the agamid lizard Laudakia stoliczkana (Blanford, 1875) (Agamidae, Sauria). – Amphibia-Reptilia, 2: 193-204.

WU SONGLIN & YANG SHUFANG (1995): Observation on anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the lung of Agama stoliczkana. – Zoological Research, 16 (3): 262, 280, 288. (in Chinesisch)


Paralaudakia stoliczkana stoliczkana (BLANFORD,1875)

Mongolia Rock Agama


Paralaudakia stoliczkana altaica (MUNKHBAYAR & SHAGDARSUREN, 1970)

Mongolia Rock Agama


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