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Literatur und Schriften


Leiolepis CUVIER, 1829

Schmetterlingsagamen

ARANYAVALAI, V. (2003): Species diversity and habitat characteristics of Butterfly Lizards (Leiolepis spp.) in Thailand. – Unveröffentlichte PhD Thesis in Biologie, Faculty of Science, Chzulalongkorn University, Bangkok. I-IX + 81 S.

ARANYAVALAI, V., CHULALAKSANANUKUL, W. & K. THIRAKHUPT (2004): Karyological comparative study of the genus Leiolepis (Reptilia, Uromastycidae) from Thailand. – Chromosome Research, 12, Suppelement 1 (15th International Chromosome Conference: Abstracts): 7-8.

CHUTMONGKONKUL, M. & P. PARIYANONTH (2005): Helminths and blood parasites of Butterfly lizards, Leiolepis spp., in Thailand. – Abstract, 31st Congres on Science and Technology of Thailand at Suranaree University of Technology, 18-20 Oct. 2005.

CUVIER, G. (1829): Description of the genus Leiolepis and type species guttata. - In: “Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé”. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406.

DAREVSKY, I.S. & L.A. KUPRIYANOVA (1993): Two new all-female lizard species of the genus Leiolepis CUVIER, 1829 from Thailand and Vietnam (Squamata: Sauria: Uromastycinae). – Herpetozoa, Wien, 6 (1/2): 3-20.

GRISMER, J.L., BAUER, A.M., GRISMER, L.L., THIRAKHUPT, K.,AOWPHOL, A., OAKS, J.R., WOOD, P.L. JR, ONN, C.K., THY, N., COTA, M. & T. JACKMAN (2014): Multiple origins of parthenogenesis, and a revised species phylogeny for the Southeast Asian butterfly lizards, Leiolepis. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 113: 1080–1093.

Hybridization often occurs in areas of secondary contact between closely related species. In some cases these hybridization events can create hybrid offspring that are reproductively viable as new parthenogenetic species. The genus Leiolepis contains nine species that collectively range throughout continental Southeast Asia. Of these, four are unisexual (some diploid and some triploid). We analyzed a multi-locus dataset within a multi-lineage coalescent framework to infer the origins of these parthenogenetic hybrid species. Our results provide evidence that repeated hybridization events between L. reevesii and L. guttata have led to the formation of all four distinct parthenogenetic species. Our data further suggest there have been low levels of mitochondrial introgression between L. belliana and L. reevesii at their contact zone in southern Cambodia. This work addresses contentious species boundaries and provides the first taxon-complete hypothesis of relationships for the butterfly lizards.

GRISMER, J.L., JACKMAN, T., BAUER, A.M., GRISMER, L.L.,THIRAKHUPT, K., AOWPHOL, A., ONN, C.K. & P.L. WOOD Jr. (2010): Asexuality on the beach: phylogeny, biogeography and the origin of parthenogenesis in Leiolepis. - Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on Agamid Lizards «DeAgamis2». - Current Studies in Herpetology, 10 (3/4): 144.

HARTMANN T., & W. BÖHME (2010): Remarks on the taxonomy and ecology of SE Asian butterfly lizards, genus Leiolepis (Agamidae: Leiolepidinae). - Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on Agamid Lizards «DeAgamis2». - Current Studies in Herpetology, 10 (3/4): 145.

HARTMANN, T., GEISSLER, P. W. BÖHME (2011): Leiolepis (Squamata: Agamidae) farming in southern Vietnam and a new size record in butterfly lizards. - Herpetological Bulletin, 17: 15-18.

MALYSHEVA, D.N., DYAREVSKII, I.S., TOKARSKAIA, O.N., PETROSIAN, V.G., MARTIROSIAN, I.A. & A.P. RYSKOV (2006): Analysis of genetic variation in unisexual und bisexual lizard species of the genus Leiolepis from Southeast Asia. - Russian Journal of Genetics, 2006, 42 (5): 463–467.

MALYSHEVA, D.N., DYAREVSKII, I.S., TOKARSKAIA, O.N., PETROSIAN, V.G., MARTIROSIAN, I.A. & A.P. RYSKOV (2006): Analysis of genetic variation in unisexual und bisexual lizard species of the genus Leiolepis from Southeast Asia. – Genetika, 42 (5): 581-586. (in Russisch)

MANTHEY, U. & W. GROSSMANN (1997): Genus Leiolepis - In: Amphibien und Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier – Verlag, Münster: 284-286.

PETERS, G. (1971): Die intragenerischen Gruppen und die Phylogenese der Schmetterlingsagamen (Agamidae: Leiolepis). – Zool. Jb. (Syst.),98: 11-130.

WEITKUS, S. (1999): Untersuchungen zur Systematik, Ethologie und Ökologie südostasiatischer Schmetterlingsagamen (Sauria: Agamidae: Leiolepis). – Diplomarbeit Universität Bonn. 275 S.

Leiolepis belliana HARDWICKE & GRAY,1827

Prachtschmetterlingsagame / Beauty Butterfly Lizard

BÖHME, W. (2003): Zur Kenntnis aggressiver Auseinandersetzungen frei lebender Schmetterlingsagamen (Gattung Leiolepis CUVIER), mit einer bei Wirbeltieren bisher unbekannten Lokomotionsform. – Draco, Münster, 4 (2):39. (03.115)

FELIX, J. (1966): Aus dem Leben der Schmetterlingsagamen in der Natur. – Aquar. Terrar., Leipzig, 13 (2): 56-59. (01.642)

GLÄSS, H. (0000): Die Schmetterlingsagame, Leiolepis belliana (Gray), ein schöner und seltener Terrarienpflegling. – Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig. S. 313.

GOLDBERG, S.R., BURSEY, C.R. & L.L. GRISMER (2018): Endoparasiten bei der Schmetterlingsagame Leiolepis belliana (Squamata, Agamidae) aus Kambodscha. – Sauria, Berlin, 40 (3): 78-80.

GRISMER, J.L. (2009): Who’s who – The specific status of Leiolepis belliana and Leiolepis reevesi. - Abstracts of presentations hold on DeAGAMIS the 1st International Symposium on Agamid Lizards. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 302.

HALL, W.P. (1970): Three Probable Cases of Parthenogenesis in Lizards (Agamidae, Chamaeleontidae, Gekkonidae). – Experientia 26: 1271-1273.

HARDWICKE, T. & J.E. GRAY (1827): A synopsis of the species of saurian reptiles, collected in India by Major-General Hardwicke. – Zool. J., London 3: 213-229.

KOCH, H. (0000): Über die Schmetterlingsagame (Leiolepis belliana). – Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig. S. 315.

KRYSKO, K.L. & K.M. ENGE (2005): A new non-native lizard in Florida, the Butterfly Lizard, Leiolepis belliana (Sauria: Agamidae). - Florida Scientist 68(4): 247-249.

During field surveys in May and June 2004, we confirmed the existence of the non-native butterfly lizard (Leiolepis belliana), in Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida. We found L. belliana active during the daytime in an area encompassing six square city blocks, where it was observed basking and foraging on open grassy lawns and inhabiting burrows. The population of L. belliana originated from a tropical fish dealer and has been established there since at least 1992. If eradication of the Miami population is desired, it should be attempted while the population remains localized.

LOSOS, J.N.B., PAPENFUSS, T.J. & J.R. MACEY (1989): Correlates of sprinting, jumping and parachuting performance in the butterfly lizard, Leiolepis belliana. – J. Zool. London, 217: 559-568.

MERTENS, R. (1961): Die Rassen der Schmetterlingsagame, Leiolepis belliana. - Senckenbergiana biologica, Frankfurt/Main, 42 (5/6): 507-510. (1045)

NGO DAC CHUNG (1994): Morphological descriptions of the butterfly lizard Leiolepis belliana (Gray) in south Thua Thien – Hue Province. – Tap Chi Sinh Hoc 16 (1) Thang 3: 39-43. (in Vietnamesisch)

REKUM, M. van (0000): De vlinderagaam Leiolepis belliana. – Lacerta: 61-62.


Leiolepis belliana belliana (GRAY, 1827)

BÖHME, W. (1982): Über die Schmetterlingsagamen, Leiolepis b. belliana (GRAY, 1827) der Malayischen Halbinsel und ihre parthenogenetischen Linien (Sauria: Uromastycidae). – Zool. Jb. Syst., Jena, 109: 157-169.

MERTENS, R. (1961): Die Rassen der Schmetterlingsagame, Leiolepis belliana. - Senckenbergiana biologica, Frankfurt/Main, 42 (5/6): 507-510.


Leiolepis belliana ocellata PETERS, 1971

PAUWELS, O.S.G. & C. CHIMSUNCHART (2007): Die Augenfleck-Schmetterlingsagame Leiolepis ocellata Peters, 1971 in Thailand. – elaphe N.F., Rheinbach, 20 (1): 60-62.


Leiolepis boehmei DAREVSKY & KUPRIYANOVA, 1993

Böhmes Schmetterlingsagame / Böhme´s Butterfly Lizard

DAREVSKY, I.S. & L.A. KUPRIYANOVA (1993): Two new all-female lizard species of the genus Leiolepis CUVIER, 1829 from Thailand and Vietnam. – Herpetozoa, Wien, 6 (1/2): 3-20. (00.522)


Leiolepis guentherpetersi DAREVSKY & KUPRIYANOVA, 1993

Peters´ Schmetterlingsagame / Peters´ Butterfly Lizard

DAREVSKY, I.S. & L.A. KUPRIYANOVA (1993): Two new all-female lizard species of the genus Leiolepis CUVIER, 1829 from Thailand and Vietnam. – Herpetozoa, Wien, 6 (1/2): 3-20. (00.522)

SCHMITZ, A., VENCES, M., WEITKUS, S., ZIEGLER, T. & W. BÖHME (2001): Recent maternal divergence of the parthenogenetic lizard Leiolepis guentherpetersi from L. guttata: molecular evidence (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae). – Zool. Abh. Dresden, 51 (21): 355-360.


Leiolepis guttata CUVIER, 1829

Vietnamesische Schmetterlingsagame / Spotted Butterfly Lizard

CUVIER, G. (1829): Description of the genus Leiolepis and type species guttata. - In: “Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé”. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406.

MERTENS, R. (1961): Die Rassen der Schmetterlingsagame, Leiolepis belliana. - Senckenbergiana biologica, Frankfurt/Main, 42 (5/6): 507-510.

SCHLÜTER, U. (2003): Im Porträt: die Vietnamesische Schmetterlingsagame (Leiolepis guttata CUVIER, 1829). – Draco, Münster, 4 (2): 40-41.

Inhalt:
Verbreitung: Lebensraum, Beschreibung, Größe, Geschlechtsunterschiede, Lebensweise und Verhalten, Fortpflanzung, Ernährung.

SCHMITZ, A., VENCES, M., WEITKUS, S., ZIEGLER, T. & W. BÖHME (2001): Recent maternal divergence of the parthenogenetic lizard Leiolepis guentherpetersi from L. guttata: molecular evidence (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae). – Zool. Abh. Dresden, 51 (21): 355-360.

STRUIJK, R. (2000): Verzorging en succesvolle incubatie van de reuzenvlinderagaam (Leiolepis guttata, CUVIER 1829). – Lacerta 58 (2): 35-40.

At the beginning of March, I purchased a beauti fu l pair giant butterfly agamas (Leiolepis guttata). The female was pregnant. This species (one our of fi ve) can be found in T hailand, Laos, Vietnam and South C hina where it inh ibits intermediate areas between forests and areas that are more open. Except for this bit of information, there is little useful known about these creatures so I had to find out how to keep them successfully o n my own. With the idea of the pregnant female in my mind, I housed male and female individually to minimize stress. T he tempe- Leiolepis gtttrata man Lacerta 58(2) * 2000 Leiolepis guttata jong rature of the terrariums is kept at 27 - 29°C with a basking spot of 30 - 32°C. Humidity is kept at a reasonable high level by frequently misting. Bottom substrate exists of a sand pear-mixture (4: l) from which I made a small hill on one side of the terrariums so they could dig their own burrow. Be sure the burrow cannot collapse by keeping the substrate moist! Anoth er recommendable item is to provide the lizards with some branches in which they can and will climb. The diet of the lizards co mains crickets, mealworms, super worms, earthworms, wax worms, fruit and vegetables. T his way of mainrenance seems to work fine, having healthy active lizards as a resul t. Five days after acquiring the lizards, the female laid five eggs, which were put in an incubator ("au-bain marie"). I tried to keep the tempera[Ure at 29°C- 30°C and misted the eggs frequently. After 64 days one of the eggs hatched giving me a 12,5 em. tall young gianr butterfly agamic!. The youngster was (eventually) housed in a small aquarium with beach sand floor coverage. His care is the same as that of the adults although he does not eat much and he does not grow fast. Nevertheless, he looks very healthy.

Leiolepis ngovantrii GRISMER & GRISMER, 2010

Ngo Van Tri’s Lady Butterfly Lizard

GRISMER, J.L. & L.L. GRISMER (2010): Who’s youre mommy? Identifying maternal ancestors of asexual species of Leiolepis Cuvier, 1829 and the description of a new endemic species of asexual Leiolepis Cuvier, 1829 from Southern Vietnam. – Zootaxa, 2433: 47-61.


Leiolepis peguensis PETERS,1971

Burma-Schmetterlingsagame / Burmese Butterfly Lizard


Leiolepis reevesii GRAY,1831

Reeves Schmetterlingsagame / Reeves´ Butterfly Lizard

DU, Y., CHI-XIAN, L., LONG-HUI, L., QING-BO, Q. & J. XIANG (2011): Ontogenetic shifts in sexual dimorphism and female reproduction in the Reeves’s Butterfly Lizard Leiolepis reevesii from Hainan, China. – Journal of Herpetology, 45 (4): 399-405.

GOLDBERG, S.R., BURSEY, C.R. & L.L. GRISMER (2019): Endoparasiten der Schmetterlingsagame Leiolepis reevesii (Squamata: Agamidae) aus China. – Sauria, Berlin, 41 (3): 55-56.

GRISMER, J.L. (2009): Who’s who – The specific status of Leiolepis belliana and Leiolepis reevesi. - Abstracts of presentations hold on DeAGAMIS the 1st International Symposium on Agamid Lizards. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 302.

HUA, L., MAO, L.X., CHEN, C., GAO, J.F. & L.H. LIN (2012): Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Reevese’s butterfly lizard Leiolepis reevesii (Agamidae). – Conservation Genetics Resources, 4 (3): 791-794.

We characterize 25 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Leiolepis reevesii genomic libraries. Thirty-four individuals were collected from two populations, eighteen from a mainland population in Xuwen, Guangdong, and the remaining 16 from an island population in Haikou, Hainan. These markers revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity (2–18 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (H O ranged from 0.000–0.938, and H E ranged from 0.160–0.954). Eight loci exhibited significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) after sequential Bonferroni correction due to heterozygote deficiencies, but only one locus (L311) with low heterozygosity in one population did significantly deviate from HWE in the other. Inbreeding may explain the deviations from HWE. There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium among pairs of loci in the samples. These microsatellite markers will be useful for future studies focusing on gene flow, population structure and evolutionary history of L. reevesii.

LIN, C.X., DU, Y., QIU, Q.B. & X. JI (2007): Relatively high but narrow incubation temperatures in lizards depositing eggs in warm and thermally stable nests. – Act. Zool. Sin., 52 (3): 437-445. (In Chinesisch)

LIN, C.X., QIU, Q.B., LIN, L.H. & X. JI (2004): Sexual dimorphism and reproductive output in Reevese’s butterfly lizards, Leiolepis reevesii. – Zool. Res., 25 (6): 477-483. (In Chinesisch)

LONG-HUI, L., XIANG, J., CHEONG-HOONG, D., DU, Y. & L. CHI-XIAN (2010): Phylogeography and population structure of the Reevese’s Butterfly Lizard (Leiolepis reevesii) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. – Moleculatr Phylogenetics and Evolution, 56 (2): 601-607.

MERTENS, R. (1961): Die Rassen der Schmetterlingsagame, Leiolepis belliana. - Senckenbergiana biologica, Frankfurt/Main, 42 (5/6): 507-510.


Leiolepis rubritaeniata GRAY,1831


BORISOV, I.V. (2010): Captive care and breeding of Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata Mertens, 1961 in a terrarium. - Current Studies in Herpetology, 10 (3/4): 132–137.

Data on captive care and breeding of the butterfly lizards Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata in a terrarium are presented. Information on the terrarium design, adaptation, feeding, behavior and breeding of these animals is considered.

HARTMANN, T., SOTHANIN, S., HANDSCHUH, M. & W. BÖHME (2012): The taxonomic status of the Red-Banded Butterfly Lizard, Leiolepis rubritaeniata Mertens, 1961, with distributional and Natural History notes. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 19 (2): 108-114.

KRYSKO, K.L., ENGE, K.M. & C.A. MACKENZIE-KRYSKO (2013): The Red-Banded Butterfly Lizard, Leiolepis rubritaeniata Mertens 1961 (Sauria: Leiolepididae), A Newly Documented Nonindigenous Species in Florida. – Reptiles and Amphibians 20(4): 197–198.

MERTENS, R. (1961): Die Rassen der Schmetterlingsagame, Leiolepis belliana. - Senckenbergiana biologica, Frankfurt/Main, 42 (5/6): 507-510.

PHIMPHAN, S., TANOMTONG, A., PATAWANG, I., KAEWSRI, S., JANTARAT, S. & L. SANOAMUANG (2013): Cytogenetic Study of Northeastern Butterfly Lizard, Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata (Squamata, Agamidae) in Northeast Thailand. – Cytologia 78 (2): 133-140.

The present study aims to construct the karyotype and idiogram of the Northeastern butterfly lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata). Specimens were collected from Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. Lizard chromosome preparation was conducted by the squash technique using bone marrow and testis. Conventional staining and NOR-banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes with Giemsa’s solution. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome is 2n=36, while the fundamental number (NF) is 24 in both males and females. The types of macrochromosomes were six large metacentric, four medium metacentric, two small metacentric, and 24 microchromosomes. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) are located at the secondary constriction of long arm chromosomes, near the telomeres of the largest metacentric chromosomes. The karyotypes are not different for the sex chromosomes of both males and females. The karyotype formula is as follows: 2n (36)=L6 m+M4 m+S2 m+24 microchromosomes.

SRIKULNATH, K., MATSUBARA, K., UNO, Y., THONGPAN, A., SUPUTTITADA, S., APISITWANICH, S., MATSUDA, Y. & C. NISHIDA (2009): Karyological characterization of the butterfly lizard (Leiolepis belliana rubritaeniata, Agamidae, Squamata) by molecular cytogenetic approach. – Cytogenetic Genome Res., 125 (3): 213-223.


Leiolepis triplolida PETERS,1971


Malayische Schmetterlingsagame / Thai Butterfly Lizard, Malayan Butterfly Lizard

YONG, H.S., YAP, K., ELABUT, D., LIM, P.E. & C. K. LEE (2011): Malaysian Butterfly Lizard Leiolepis triploida (Reptilia, Squamata: Leiolepidae) in Clearwater Sanctuary, Perak: geographical range extension in Peninsular Malaysia. - Journal of Science and Technology in the Tropics  7: 87-89.

The Malaysian Butterfly Lizard Leiolepis triploida is known from the inland areas of Perlis, Kedah and Seberang Perai (Penang) in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The present finding of this butterfly lizard in Clearwater Sanctuary, Batu Gajah, Perak Darul Ridzuan has extended its known geographical range further south in Peninsular Malaysia. It remains to be established how far south it would spread, how widespread it is in Peninsular Malaysia, and whether it would displace the existing populations of the Common Butterfly Lizard Leiolepis belliana.


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