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Literatur und Schriften


Laudakia GRAY, 1848

Asian Rock Agamas

ANANJEVA, N.B., IOHANSSEN, L. & T. DUISEBAYEVA (2000): Skin receptors of Laudakia (Agamidae, Sauria) with some comments about scalation of Asian rock agamids. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 7 (1): 51-60.

ANANJEVA, N.B. & TUNIEV (1994): Some aspects of historical biogeography of Asian rock agamids. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 1 (1): 43-49.

BAIG, K.J. & W. BÖHME (1997): Partition of the ‚Stellio’ group of Agama into two distinct genera: Acanthocercus FITZINGER, 1843, and Laudakia GRAY, 1845 (Sauria: Agamidae). – In: Böhme, Bischoff & Ziegler (eds.): Proc. 8th Ord. Gen. Meet. Soc. Europ. Herp., 1997: 21-26.

BAIG, K.J., WAGNER, P., ANANJEVA, N.B. & W. BÖHME (2012): A morphology-based taxonomic revision of Laudakia GRAY, 1845 (Squamata: Agamidae). – Vertebrate Zoology, 62 (2): 213-260.

The former genus Stellio has already been partitioned into Laudakia Gray, 1845 and Acanthocercus Fitzinger, 1849 on the basis of several pieces of evidence. The main objective of this study is to revise Laudakia which recently includes 20 species: L. agrorensis, L. badakshana, L. bochariensis, L. caucasia, L. dayana, L. erythrogaster, L. fusca, L. himalayana, L. lehmanni, L. melanura, L. microlepis, L. nupta, L. nuristanica, L. pakistanica, L. papenfussi, L. sacra, L. stellio, L. stoliczkana, L. tuberculata, and L. wui. More than 600 specimens have been studied with reference to 54 morphological characters which resulted in a detailed descriptive account for each taxon. Agama isozona is recognized as a synonym of L. bochariensis. The latter species itself has been placed in a supraspecific complex consisting of L. himalayana, L. badakshana and L. bochariensis. Laudakia caucasia which has ben lowered and raised several times since its appearance is again identified as a monotypic species by placing L. caucasia triannulata as synonym under L. microlepis. Laudakia fusca was described as a variety of L. nupta but subsequent herpetologists synonymized it or recognized it as full species. According to this study L. fusca should be recognized again as subspecies of L. nupta pending more detailed further research. Moreover, several previous works have indicated that Laudakia is paraphyletic and therefore two new genera are described herein encompassing the stellio- and caucasia-groups.

DUJSEBAYEVA, T.N. (1998): The histology of callous scales of the males of Asian rock agamas (Reptilia; Agamidae). – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 5 (2): 150-157.

GRAY, J.E. (1845): Description of the genus Laudakia. In “Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum”. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp.

HOSER, R.T. (2012): A five-way division of the agamid genus Laudakia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Sauria: Agamidae). - Australasian Journal of Herpetology 14:17-23.

The Agamid genus Laudakia Gray, 1845 has had a checkered history in terms of nomenclature. However in recent years a number of molecular studies have confirmed the relationships between species within the genus Laudakia senso lato and closely related genera. As currently recognized the genus Laudakia senso-lato consists of five distinct species groups. All are sufficiently divergent in terms of morphology, habits and divergence as ascertained from molecular studies to be accorded full genus status. One of these groups is already commonly referred to as the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (26 species). In terms of the rest, the names Laudakia and Plocederma Blyth, 1854 are available for two other groups. The other two unnamed groups are formally named according to the Zoological Code within this paper. These are Adelynkimberleyea gen. nov. for the caucasia group and Jackyindigoea gen. nov. for the taxon sacra. Within Adelynkimberleyea gen. nov. the morphologically and ecologically divergent taxon lehmanni is placed in the newly named subgenus Agamatajikistanensis subgen. nov..

RASTEGAR-POUYANI, N. & G. NILSON (2002): Taxonomy and biogeography of the Iranian species of Laudakia (Sauria: Agamidae). – Zoology in the Middle East, Heidelberg, 26: 93-122.

SMIRNOVA, Y.A. (2003): Dermal papillous scales at the rock agamas of the genus Laudakia (Sauria, Agamidae). – Curr. Stud. Herp., 2: 124-136. [In Russisch.]

The skin of agamid lizards of the genera Laudakia and Acanthocercus is remarkable by the presence of the papillous scales and scales with jagged edge. Different species of these genera have been distinguished by presence/absence of these scales on different parts of the body. Comparative study of different Laudakia species has shown that in «caucasia» (L. caucasia, L. erythrogastra, L. microlepis) and «stellio» (L. stellio, L. nupta) complexes the papillous scales are better developed in comparison with «himalayana» complex. In the latter group the papillous scales are almost absent, with exception of two species (L. stoliczkana and L. chernovi), which has slightly developed scales with jagged edge on the palmar and plantar surface. L. lehmanni is characterised by complete absence of papillous scales. The all studied here species of the genus Acanthocercus (A. annectens, A. atricollis and A. cyanogaster) have papillous scales. There is a distinct sexual dimorphism in the distribution pattern of papillous scales along the body surface in agamid lizards. Females have less developed papillous scales than males; these scales are almost absent in subadults. Populations of Laudakia caucasia demonstrate geographic variation in the degree of development of the papillous scales.


Laudakia agrorensis (STOLICZKA, 1872)

Agror Agama

MANHAS, A., RAINA, R. & A. WANGANEO (2018): Observations of Agror Agamas, Laudakia agrorensis, (Stoliczka 1871) (Sauria: Agamidae), in the Doda District, Jammu and Kaskmir, India. – IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians, 25 (1): 52-54.


Laudakia dayana (STOLICZKA, 1871)

Hardwar Agama

STOLICZKA, F. (1871): Notes on new or little-known Indian lizards. - Proc. asiat. Soc. Bengal (Calcutta), 1871: 192-195.


Laudakia melanura BLYTH, 1854

Schwarzagame / Black Agama

ANDERSON, S.C. (1999): Laudakia melanura Blyth, 1854 - In: Lizards of Iran. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford, Ohio: 75-76.

HEIDARI, N., CHEATSAZAN, H., KAMI, H.G. & S. SHAFIEL (2010): Sexual dimorphism in the Black Rock Agama, Laudakia melanura lirata (Blanford, 1874) (Sauria: Agamidae). – Zoology in the Middle East, 49: 49-53.

RAJABIZADEH, M. & N. RASTEGAR-POUYANI (2009): Two new records of reptiles (Reptilia: Squamata) from Southeastern Iran. – Turk. J. Zool., 33: 103-104.

Based on extensive research, the first record of Coluber (s.l.) andreanus (Werner, 1917) and the first definite record of Laudakia melanura lirata (Blanford, 1874) from southeastern regions of the Iranian Plateau are presented.

Laudakia melanura melanura BLYTH, 1854

Black Agama

SCHWIER, H. (2008): Bemerkungen zum Geschlechtsdimorphismus bei der Schwarzagame (Laudakia melanura melanura BLYTH, 1854) anhand von zwei Abbildungen. – Iguana-Rundschreiben, 20 (2): 23-24.


Laudakia melanura lirata (BLANDORD 1874)

Black Agama

HEIDARI, N., CHEATSAZAN, H., KAMI, H.G. & S. SHAFIEL (2010): Sexual dimorphism of black rock agama, Laudakia melanura lirata (Blanford, 1874) (Sauria: Agamidae). Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on Agamid Lizards «DeAgamis2». - Current Studies in Herpetology, 10 (3/4): 145–146.


Laudakia melanura nasiri BAIG, 1999

Black Agama

BAIG, K.J. (1999): Description and ecology of a new subspecies of Black Rock Agama, Laudakia melanura (Sauria: Agamidae) from Balochistan, Pakistan. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 6 (2): 81-86.


Laudakia nupta DE FILIPI, 1843

Yellow-headed Rock Agama

ANDERSON, S.C. (1999): Laudakia nupta (De Filippi, 1843) - In: Lizards of Iran. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford, Ohio: 78-80.

SANCHOOLI, N., RAHIMIAN, H., RASTEGAR-POUYANI, N. & E. RASTEGAR-POUYANI (2014): Distribution of the Large-Scaled Rock Agama, Laudakia nupta (De FiLippi, 1843) in Iran and its Sexual Dimorphism (Squamata: Agamidae). - Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5 (4): 261-276.

The distribution range of Laudakia nupta (De Filippi, 1843) was revised based on new records from southeastern, southern, central, north eastern and eastern Iran. We recognized main distribution range of this species is regions above mentioned. To explore patterns of sexual dimorphism in the Large-Scaled Rock Agama, Laudakia nupta De Filippi, 1843, we examined 13 morphometric and four meristic traits in 59 adult specimens, including 31 males and 20 females of Laudakia nupta nupta De Filippi, 1843, further to four males and four females of Laudakia nupta fusca Blanford, 1876. To determine degree of sexual dimorphism between the two sexes in each subspecies, we used univariate and multivariate analyses. Analyses of the morphometric traits showed that the head size (head length, head width and head height) was significantly different between males and females of Laudakia nupta nupta, while univariate analysis revealed no significant differences in characters between the two sexes in Laudakia nupta fusca. Furthermore, in each taxon, males have more pronounced coloration or ornamentation and more developed callous scales on mid-ventral and pre-anal regions than those of females. Meristic traits, on the other hand, showed no significant differences between the two sexes.

VAISSI, S., FATHIPOUR, F., SALAMAT, M.A., PARTO, P. & M. SHARIFI (2013): Variations in the size of erythrocytes and morphology of four lizard species (Laudakia nupta, Trapelus lessonae, Mabuya aurata and Ophisops elegans) from Western Iran. – Global Veterinaria, 11 (3): 297-301.

The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte and nucleus sizes of two species of Agamidae (Laudakia nupta and Trapelus lessonae), one species of Scincidae (Mabuya aurata) and one species of Lacertidae (Ophisops elegans) from Iran by means of blood smears stained with Giemsa. The sizes of erythrocytes and their nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer at a magnification of 6300x. The longest, widest and largest erythrocytes were found in Laudakia nupta. The shortest and narrowest erythrocytes and nuclei were found in Trapelus lessonae. The longest, widest and largest nuclei were found in Mabuya aurata. The study revealed significant variation between Iranian species and others indicating the significant affect of environmental conditions.


Laudakia nupta nupta (DE FILIPI, 1843)

Yellow-headed Rock Agama

FILIPPI, F. de (1843): Description of Laudakia nupta nupta. - In: “ Intorno ad alcune specie di rettili”. - Giorn. Ist. Lomb. e Bib. Ital. 6: 407-415.


Laudakia nupta fusca (BLANFORD, 1876)

Yellow-headed Rock Agama

BLANFORD, W.T. (1876): Description  of Laudakia nupta fusca. - In: Eastern Persia, an account of the journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission 1870-71-72 Vol II Zoology and Geology. London, 1876.

CHEATSAZAN, H., RABANI, V., MAHJOORAZAD, A. & H.G. KAMI (2008): Taxonomic statusn of the Yellow-Headed Agama, Laudakia nupta fusca (Blanford, 1876) (Sauria: Agamidae). – Zoology in the Middle East, 44: 41-50.

MAHJOORAZAD, A., CHEATSAZAN, H., KAMI, H.G. & V.R. KAMI (2005): Distribution of the Yellow-Headed Agama, Laudakia nupta fusca (Blanford 1872), in Iran (Squamata: Agamidae). - Zoology in the Middle East, 36 (1): 21-26.

In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wird das Vorkommen der Gelbkopfagame, Laudakia nupta fusca Blanford, 1872, im Iran dargestellt, basierend auf neuen Feststellungen im Südosten, Süden und Südwesten des Landes. Belegexemplare wurden in den Provinzen Belutschistan, Hormozgan and Bushehr in Höhen von 30 bis 1950 m NN gesammelt. Die Unterart scheint auf das dem Iranischen Plateau vorgelagerten Hügelland beschränkt zu sein, wo die Nominatform nicht vorkommt.


Laudakia nuristanica ANDERSON & LEVITON,1969

Leviton´s Rock Agama

BAIG, K.J. (1988): New record of Agama nuristanica (Sauria: Agamidae) from Pakistan. – Biologia, 34 (1): 199-201.


Laudakia pakistanica BAIG, 1989

Pakistani Agama

BAIG, K.J. (1989): A new species of Agama (Sauria:Agamidae) from northern Pakistan. – Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History & Human, 9: 117-122.

BAIG, K.J. & W. BÖHME (1996): Description of two new subspecies of Laudakia pakistanica (sauria: agamidae). – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 3 (1): 1-10.

Two new subspecies of Laudakia pakistanica are described from the northern mountain region of Pakistan, representing, next to the nominotypic form, two out the four distinct populations of Laudakia pakistanica. The fourth one is regarded an intermediate population between the two. All four new forms are distributed in an area along the Indus river of Pakistan.

KHAN, B., AHMED, W., ABLIMIT, A., FAKHRI, S. & H. ALI (2012): Range extension of four highland agamid lizards in Shimshal Pamir, Pakistan. – Journal of Arid Land, 4 (1): 77-84.

As part of the Sino-Pak trans-boundary cooperation for conservation and sustainable development in Pamir border region, World Wild Fund (WWF)-Pakistan conducted a preliminary social, economic and ecological survey in the Shimshal-Pamir Lakes area in July 2009. The purpose of the study was to explore potentials and opportunities for future collaborative conservation of some species, habitats and high altitude ecosystems in the border region between China and Pakistan. The two-week herpetological study in the Shimshal Pamir area of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) along Pakistan-China border was an integral part of the survey, conducted exclusively to document reptilian fauna with a special emphasis on investigating their occurrence, distribution and status in the study area. Field investigations were performed during daytime when it was hot enough and reptiles were active, basking or feeding. A total of 15 specimens belonging to four species of the Agamidae family were captured by striking stones and beating bushes with sticks. Collected specimens were preserved using 10% formalin solution, tagged with field information and stored in Zoological Survey Department, Karachi for future reference. Laboratory investigations were carried out for pholidosic counts and morphometric measurements. A detailed review of relevant literature, habitat characteristics and laboratory investigations revealed the occurrence of Laudakia himalayana, L. pakistanica, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana at 4,082 m, 4,172 m, 4,005 m and 4,240 m asl, respectively, which are much higher altitudes as compared to the previously reported heights of 3,353 m, 3,200 m, 2,500 m and 2,400 m asl. The terrain offers a variety of ecological barriers, in the form of fast and freezing running waters and massive glaciers with peculiar harsh climatic conditions prevailing for nine months of the year, which restricts species migration and thus increases endemism. Although one of the four species recorded from the study area, i.e. L. pakistanica is endemic to Pakistan, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana are new records from Shimshal, Pakistan, so a detailed investigation is suggested for further herpetological records from the study area.


Laudakia pakistanica pakistanica BAIG, 1989

Pakistani Agama


Laudakia pakistanica auffenbergi BAIG & BÖHME, 1996

Pakistani Agama

BAIG, K.J. & W. BÖHME (1996): Description of two new subspecies of Laudakia pakistanica (Sauria: Agamidae). – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 3 (1): 1-10.

Laudakia pakistanica khani BAIG & BÖHME, 1996

Pakistani Agama

BAIG, K.J. & W. BÖHME (1996): Description of two new subspecies of Laudakia pakistanica (Sauria: Agamidae). – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 3 (1): 1-10.


Laudakia papenfussi ZHAO, 1998

Papenfass´ Rock Agama

ZHAO, E.M. (1998): A new species of Laudakia from Xizang (Tibet) (Sauria: Agamidae). – Zoological Research, 19 (5): 401-404.


Laudakia sacra SMITH, 1935

Anan´s Rock Agama

ANANJEVA, N.B., PETERS, G., MACEY, J.R. & T.J. PAPENFUSS (1990): Stellio sacra (Smith 1935) – a distinct species of asiatic rock agamid from Tibet. – Asiatic Herpetological Research, 3: 104-115.


Laudakia tuberculata GRAY,1827

Tuberculated Agama / Kashmir Rock Agama

DAS, S.M. & P.L. DUDA (1964): The functional anatomy of the urinogenital organs of Agama tuberculata Gray. (The common lizard of Kashmir). – Kashmir Sci., 1 (1-2): 53-63.

DODSWORTH, P.T.L. (1913): On the Habits of the Rock Lizard (Agama tuberculata). - J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 404.

DUDA, P.L. (1965): Studies on the functional morphology of Agama tuberculata Gray. (The common lizard of Kashmir) Part 2. The post-cranial skeleton. – Kashmir Sci., 2: 40-57.

DUDA, P.L. (1965): On the cranial osteology of Agama tuberculata with a note on the comparative study of skull in the family Agamidae. – Vestn. Ceskosl. Spol. Zool., 29 (1): 156-174.

DUDA, P.L. (1972): The venous system of Agama tuberculata Gray. – British Journal of Herpetology, 4 (11): 297-306.

DUDA, P.L. (1974): Arterial system in Agamidae with special reference to the system in Agama tuberculata Gray (Reptilia:Lacertilia). – Journal Herpet., 8 (1): 81-84.

FISCHER, C.E.C. (1907): Aberration in Scales of regrown tail of Agama tuberculata, Grey. - J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 208.

GRAY, J.E. (1827): Description Laudakia tuberculata. - In: A synopsis of the Species of Saurian Reptiles, collected in India by Major-General Hardwicke, by Major-General Hardwicke, , F.R. & L.S., and J.E. Gray, F.G.S. - The Zoological Journal, Vol III from January, 1827, to april, 1828. London, 1828.

KHAN, B., AHMED, W., ABLIMIT, A., FAKHRI, S. & H. ALI (2012): Range extension of four highland agamid lizards in Shimshal Pamir, Pakistan. – Journal of Arid Land, 4 (1): 77-84.

As part of the Sino-Pak trans-boundary cooperation for conservation and sustainable development in Pamir border region, World Wild Fund (WWF)-Pakistan conducted a preliminary social, economic and ecological survey in the Shimshal-Pamir Lakes area in July 2009. The purpose of the study was to explore potentials and opportunities for future collaborative conservation of some species, habitats and high altitude ecosystems in the border region between China and Pakistan. The two-week herpetological study in the Shimshal Pamir area of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) along Pakistan-China border was an integral part of the survey, conducted exclusively to document reptilian fauna with a special emphasis on investigating their occurrence, distribution and status in the study area. Field investigations were performed during daytime when it was hot enough and reptiles were active, basking or feeding. A total of 15 specimens belonging to four species of the Agamidae family were captured by striking stones and beating bushes with sticks. Collected specimens were preserved using 10% formalin solution, tagged with field information and stored in Zoological Survey Department, Karachi for future reference. Laboratory investigations were carried out for pholidosic counts and morphometric measurements. A detailed review of relevant literature, habitat characteristics and laboratory investigations revealed the occurrence of Laudakia himalayana, L. pakistanica, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana at 4,082 m, 4,172 m, 4,005 m and 4,240 m asl, respectively, which are much higher altitudes as compared to the previously reported heights of 3,353 m, 3,200 m, 2,500 m and 2,400 m asl. The terrain offers a variety of ecological barriers, in the form of fast and freezing running waters and massive glaciers with peculiar harsh climatic conditions prevailing for nine months of the year, which restricts species migration and thus increases endemism. Although one of the four species recorded from the study area, i.e. L. pakistanica is endemic to Pakistan, L. tuberculata and L. badakhshana are new records from Shimshal, Pakistan, so a detailed investigation is suggested for further herpetological records from the study area.

KOUL, O. & P.L. DUDA (1977): Histogenesis of follicular epithelium of the oviparous lizard Agama tuberculata Gray (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the ovoviviparous lizard Lygosoma himalayanum Boulenger (Reptilia: Scincidae). – Bulletin Chicago herpetol. Soc., 12 (1): 6-12.

KUMAR, A., SENGUPTA, S., MANRAL, U. & A. DAS (2016): Laudakia tuberculata (Kashmir Rock Agama) Morphological anomaly. - Herpetological Review, 47 (2): 300.

RAINA, M.K., CHISTI, M.Z. & R.K. KAUL (1975): A new report of Oochoristica tuberculata (Rudolphi 1819) Lühe, 1898 from the intestine of Agama tuberculata in Kashmir, with remarks on its synonyms. – Indian J. Helminth., 27 (1): 1-4.

RAINA, M.K. & P.L. DUDA (1967): A pulmo-portal vein, an abnormity in Agama tuberculata (Gray). – Herpetologica, 23: 64.

WALTNER, R.C. (1977): Noosing Agama tuberculata. – Newsletter Madras Snake Pk Trust,2 (1): 9.

WALTNER, R.C. (1991): Altitudinal ecology of Agama tuberculata Gray in the western Himalayas. – Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. No. 83.


Laudakia wui ZHAO, 1998

Wui´s Rock Agama

ZHAO, E.M. (1998): A new species of the genus Laudakia from Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous region. – Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 23 (4): 440-444.

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