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Literatur und Schriften


Draco LINNAEUS, 1758

Flugdrachen / Flying Dragons

COLBERT, E.H. (1967): Adaptations for gliding in the lizard Draco. – American Museum Novitates, 2283: 1-20.

DENIGER, K. (1910): Über das „Fliegen“ der fliegenden Eidechsen. – Naturw. Wochenschr. N.F., 9 (2): 20-21.

GAULKE, M. (1993): Beobachtungen an Flugdrachen auf dem Sulu-Archipel. – Salamandra, 28: 251-257.

HENNING, W. (1936): Revision der Gattung Draco (Agamidae). – Temminckia, 1: 153-220.

HERRE, A.W. (1958): On the gliding of flying lizards, genus Draco. – Copeia, 1958: 338-339.

HONDA, M., OTA, H., KOBAYASHI, M., NABHITABHATA, J., YONG, H.-S. & T. HIKIDA (1999): Phylogenetic rerlationships of the flying lizards, genus Draco (Reptilia, Agamidae). – Zoological Science, 16: 535-549.

HONDA, M., OTA, H., SENGOKU, S. & T. HIKIDA (2000): Phylogenetic position of Draco fimbriatus, with a molecular perspective on the historical biogeography of the genus Draco (Reptilia: Agamidae). – Current Herpetology, 19: 43-55.

INGER, R.F. (1983): Morphological and ecological variation in the flaying lizards (genus Draco). – Fieldiana Zoology, New Series, 18: 1-35.

JACOBSON, E. (1916): Tjampoeradoek (vervolg). – De Tropische Natuur, 5 (3): 39-40.

KÄSTLE, W. (1972): Keine Angst vor Flugdrachen. - Aquarien Magazin, Stuttgart, 6 (9): 376-378. (1473)

KLOMP, D.A., ORD, T.J., DAS, I., DIESMOS, A., AHMAD, N. & D. STUART-FOX (2016): Ornament size and colour as alternative strategies for enhancing communication in gliding lizards. – J. Evol. Biol., 29: 1689-1700.

Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament’s colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding lizards (Agamidae; genus Draco) from Malaysia and the Philippines. We found a negative relationship across species between colour contrast against the background and dewlap size in males, but not in females, suggesting that males of different species use increasing colour contrast and dewlap size as alternative strategies for effective communication. Male dewlap size also increases with increasing sexual size dimorphism, and dewlap colour and brightness contrast increase with increasing sexual dichromatism in colour and brightness, respectively, suggesting that sexual selection may act on both dewlap size and colour. We further found evidence that relative predation intensity, as measured from predator attacks on models placed in the field, may play a role in the choice of strategy (high chromatic contrast or large dewlap area) a species employs. More broadly, these results highlight that each component in a signal (such as colour or size) may be influenced by different selection pressures and that by assessing components individually, we can gain a greater understanding of the evolution of signal diversity.

LAWATA, S. (2011): Historical Biogeography of Sumatra and Western Archipelago, Indonesia: Insights from the flying lizards in the genus Draco (Iguania: Agamidae). Thesis UC Berkeley.

The island arc west of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, here referred to as the Western Archipelago, is home to many endemic flora and fauna. Despite their importance in the biogeographic theater of insular Southeast Asia, little scientific attention has been given to these islands, with the exception of the four islands that comprise the Mentawai group. In this dissertation, I used the evolutionary history of the flying lizards in the genus Draco to elucidate the biogeographical history of Western Archipelago relative to ist neighboring mega-island Sumatra. In Chapter 1, I provide an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of the islands in the archipelago—a list that had not been revisited or updated in the last 20 years. My visit to the islands of Western Archipelago proved to add considerably to our knowledge of the herpetofauna occurring in the area. In Chapter 2, I present a revision of the molecular phylogeny of the genus Draco by incorporating sequence data from nuclear markers. And finally, in Chapter 3 I looked at the phylogenetics and population genetics of the most widely distributed species of flying lizards in Sunda Shelf—Draco sumatranus the common flying lizards—to discern the historical process by which they colonized the islands of the Western Archipelago. Using one mitochondrial locus and nine nuclear loci, I employed phylogenetic and coalescentbased population genetic methods to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Draco sumatranus. My results suggest that the islands of Simeulue, Nias, Siberut, Sipora, North & South Pagai and Enggano are monophyletic, but the Batu and Banyak Islands themselves are more closely related to Northwest Sumatran populations. This divergence is inferred to have occurred ~550,000 years ago. These findings reject the hypothesis of independent overwater dispersal onto each island, and support the hypothesis that the Western Archipelago had been colonized via the Batu and Banyak Islands and was subsequently isolated by a vicariant event—most likely related to the Pleistocene changes in sea levels. I also uncovered deep divergences of Sumatran D. sumatranus populations that cannot be adequately explained simply by the emergence of the Sunda Shelf basin during the last glacial maxima, or the modern-day geography of the island. This hints at the cryptic diversity harbored within Sumatra, and merits a more rigorous study of the island’s biogeography."

LEEFMANS, S. (1915): Vliegende draakjes. – De Tropische Natuur, 4 (7/8): 97-99.

LIEFTINCK, M.A. (1936): Op heeterdaad. - – De Tropische Natuur, 25 (4): 61-66.

LINNAEUS, C. (1758): Description of the genus Draco and type species volans. - In: “Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis”. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp.

MANTHEY, U. & W. GROSSMANN (1997): Genus Draco. - In: Amphibien und Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier – Verlag, Münster: 167-176.

MCGUIRE, J.A. (1998): Phylogenetic systematics, scaling relationships, and the evolution of gliding performance in flying lizards (genus Draco). – Unpublished D. Phil. Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin.

MCGUIRE, J.A. & A.C ALCALA (2000): A taxonomic revision of the flying lizards (Iguania: Agamidae: Draco) of the Philippine Islands, with a description of a new species. – Herpetological Monographs, 14: 81-138.

MCGUIRE, J.A. & R. DUDLEY (2005): The cost of living large: comparative gliding performance in flying lizards (Agamidae: Draco). - The American Naturalist, 166: 93–106.

Despite exhibiting considerable interspecific variation in body mass, flying lizards of the genus Draco are isometric in their area-mass scaling relationships and exhibit no significant compensatory variation in wing aspect ratio. Thus, larger species are expected to be relatively poor gliders, in lieu of behavioral or physiological compensation, when compared with smaller congeners. Here we tested this hypothesis by conducting gliding performance trials for 11 Draco species spanning virtually the entire size range of the genus. We considered three primary performance variables: maximum velocity adjusted for wind conditions, height lost over a standard horizontal glide distance, and glide angle. Comparative analysis confirmed that larger species are relatively poor gliders and do not compensate substantially for their higher wing loadings via either behavioral or physiological mechanisms. Flying lizards were found to exhibit substantial context-dependent variation in glide performance, with smaller species often exhibiting extensive variation in height lost and glide angle between trials. Variation also was observed in empirically derived velocity profiles, with only a subset of individuals appearing to performequilibrium glides. Such size-dependent variation in performance has important consequences for the ecology and evolution of flying lizards and other glissant taxa.

MCGUIRE, J.A. & R. DUDLEY (2011): The Biology of gliding in Flying Lizards (Genus Draco) and their fossil and extant analogs. - Integrative and Comparative Biology, 51 (6): 983-990.

MCGUIRE, J.A. & K.B. HEANG (2001): Phylogentic systematics of Southeast Asian flying lizards (Iguania: Agamidae: Draco) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Biological Journal of the Linaean Society, 72: 203-229.
Abstract:
Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data using maximum parsimony, minimum evolution (of log-determinant distances), and maximum-likelihood optimality criteria provided a robust estimate of Draco phylogenetic relationships. Although the analyses based on alternative optimality criteria were not entirely congruent, nonparametric bootstrap analyses indentified many well-supported clades that were common to the analyses under the three alternative criteria. Relationships within the major clades are generally well resolved and strongly supported, although this is not the case for the Philippine volans subclade. The hypothesis that a clade composed primarily of Philippine species represents a rapid radiation could not be rejected. A revised taxonomy for Draco is provided.

MUSTERS, C.J.M. (1983): Taxonomy of the genus Draco L. (Agamidae, Lacertilia, Reptilia). – Zoologische Verhandelingen, 199:1-120.

ORD, T.J., GARCIA-PORTA, J., QUEREJETA, M. & D.C. COLLAR (2020): Gliding Dragons and Flying Squirrels: Diversifying versus Stabilizing Selection on Morphology following the Evolution of an Innovation. – Am. Nat., 195 (2): E51-E66.

PFEFFER, P. (1962): Parades et comportement territorial chez trios espèces de Dragons-volants (Agamides) d´Indonesie. – Terre et la Vie,109 (4): 417-427.

SCHROO, H. (1915): Eenige mededeelingen over vliegende draakjes. – De Tropische Natuur, 4 (11): 174-176.

SCHROO, H. (1917): Nog eens “vliegende draakjes”. – De Tropische Natuur, 6 (4): 61-62.

STORR, G.M. (1974): Agamid lizards of the genera Caimanops, Physignathus and Diporiphora in Western Australia and Northern Territory. – Records W. Aust. Mus., 3 (2): 121-146.

WANDOLLECK, B. (1900): Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Draco L. - Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologischn-Ethnologischen Museums zu Dresden, 9: 1-16.

WERNER, F. (1912): Über die Aufblähbarkeit des Körpers beim fliegenden Drachen (Draco) und der Hinterhauptslappen bei Chamaeleon dilepis. — Zool. Anz., 39 (17/18): 523-529.


Draco abbreviatus HARDWICKE & GRAY, 1827

Kurzbart Flugdrache / Short-pouched Flying Dragon
Bartlett’s Flying Dragon

BARTLETT, E. (1895): The crocodiles and lizards of Borneo in the Sarawak Museum, with descriptions of supposed new species, and the variation of colours in the several species during life. – Journal of the Straits Branch Royal Asiatic Society Singapore, 28: 73-96.

BAKER, N. (2016): Five species of gliding lizard Draco spp. at Gunung Pulai, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. – SEAVR, 2016: 110-112.


Draco beccarii PETERS & DORIAE, 1878

Beccaris Flugdrache

PETERS, W.C.H. & G. DORIA (1878): Catalogo dei retilli e dei batraci raccolti da O. Beccari, L. M. D'Alberts e A. A. Bruijn. nella sotto-regione Austro-Malese. - Annali del Museo Civico de Storia Naturale di Genova, (1) 13: 323-450.


Draco biaro LAZELL,1987

Lazell´s Flying Dragon

LAZELL, J. (1987): A new flying lizard from the Sangihe Archipelago, Indonesia. – Museum of Comparative Zoology breviora, 488: 1-9.


Draco bimaculatus GÜNTHER,1864

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

GÜNTHER, A. (1864): The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp.


Draco blanfordii BLANFORD, 1878

Blanfords Flugdrache / Blanfords Flying Dragon

BISWAS, S. (1967): Occurrence of Draco blanfordi Boulenger (Sauria: Agamidae) in Assam, India. – J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 64: 374-375.

BLANFORD, W.T. (1878): Notes on some Reptilia from the Himalayas and Burma. - J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, (2) xlvii: 125-131.

SMITH, M.A. (1937): Draco blanfordi and its allies. - Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, 13: 75-76.


Draco boschmai HENNING, 1936


HENNING, W. (1936): Revision der Gattung Draco (Agamidae). – Temminckia, 1: 153-220.


Draco caerulhians LAZELL, 1992

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

LAZELL, J. (1992): New flying lizards and predictive biogeography of two Asian archipelagos. – Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 152: 475-505.


Draco cornutus GÜNTHERR, 1864

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

BARTLETT, E. (1895): The crocodiles and lizards of Borneo in the Sarawak Museum, with descriptions of supposed new species, and the variation of colours in the several species during life. – Journal of the Straits Branch Royal Asiatic Society Singapore, 28: 73-96.

BARBOUR, T. (1903): A new species of flying lizard from Sarawak, Borneo. - Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 16: 59-60.

HONDA, M., KOBAYASHI, M., YONG, H.-S., OTA, H. & T. HIKIDA (1999): Taxonomic re-evaluation of the status of Draco cornutus Günther, 1864 (Reptilia: Agamidae). – Amphibia-Reptilia, 20: 195-210.

KLOMP, D.A., STUART-FOX, D., DAS, I. & T.J. ORD (2014): Marked colour divergence in gliding membranes of a tropical lizard mirror population differences in the colour of falling leaves. – Biology Letters, 10: 20140776.

Populations of the Bornean gliding lizard, Draco cornutus, differ markedly in the colour of their gliding membranes. They also differ in local vegetation type (mangrove forest versus lowland rainforest) and consequently, the colour of falling leaves (red and brown/black in mangrove versus green, brown and black in rainforest). We show that the gliding membranes of these lizards closely match the colours of freshly fallen leaves in the local habitat as they appear to the visual system of birds (their probable predators). Furthermore, gliding membranes more closely resembled colours of local fallen leaves than standing foliage or fallen leaves in the other population’s habitat. This suggests that the two populations have diverged in gliding membrane coloration to match the colours of their local falling leaves, and that mimicking falling leaves is an adaptation that functions to reduce predation by birds.

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1992): A preliminary study of sexual dimorphism in wing morphology of five species of the flying lizards, genus Draco. – Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 14 (4): 178-183.



Draco cristatellus GÜNTHERR, 1872

Leisten-Flugdrache / Crested Flying Dragon

GÜNTHER, A. (1872): On the reptiles and amphibians of Borneo. - Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1872: 586-600.


Draco cyanopterus PETERS, 1867

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

PETERS, W.C.H. (1867): Herpetologische Notizen. - Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1867: 13-37.


Draco dussumieri DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

Western Ghats Flying Lizard

BALACHANDRAN, S. (2000): Occurrence of Draco or Flying Lizard Draco dussumieri in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. –Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 97 (1): 147-148.

JOHN, K.O. (1962): Notes on the bionomics of the flying lizard, Draco dussumieri Dum. & Bib. – J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 59: 298-301.

JOHN, K.O. (1967): Activity rhythms and thermal regulation in the South Indian flying lizard, Draco dussumieri Dum. & Bib. – J. Anim. Morph. Physiol., 14: 131-139.

JOHN, K.O. (1967): Observations on the mating behaviour and copulation in Draco dussumieri Dum. & Bib. (Reptilia: Sauria). – J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 64: 112-115.

JOHN, K.O. (1968): Cholinesterase activity in the muscles of two lizards – a glider and a runner. – J. Anim. Morph. Physiol., 13: 126-132.

JOHN, K.O. (1970): On the ´patagial musculature` of the South Indian flying lizard Draco dussumieri Dum. & Bib. – Br. J. Herpet., 4: 161-168.

JOHN, K.O. (1970): ´Territorial behaviour` in the South Indian flying lizard Draco dussumieri Dum. & Bib. – Br. J. Herpet., 4: 169-171.

JOHN, K.O. (1970): Studies on the histophysiology of the muscles of the South Indian flying lizard, Draco dussumieri (Dum. & Bib.). – J. Anim. Morph. Physiol., 17: 44-55.

JOHN, K.O. (1971): Caudal musculature of the south Indian flying lizard Draco dussumieri Dum. And Bibr. – Acta zool., Stockholm, 52: 249-255.

JOHN, K.O. (1971): A histochemical study of the pectoralis muscle of the south Indian flying lizard, Draco dussumieri. – Experientia, 27: 517-519.

PARDESHI, A. & M. NAIK (2017): First Record of the Southern Flying Lizard, Draco dussumieri (Duméril and Bibron 1837), from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. – IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (3): 191-192.

PRAKASH, R. & S.C. RAGHAVAIAH (1958): The heart of the Indian flying lizard, Draco dussumieri, with special reference to the conducting system. – J. Anat. Soc. India, 6: 107-114.

PRAKASH, R. & S.C. RAGHAVAIAH (1958): The heart of the Indian flying lizard Draco dussumieri with special reference to the conducting system. – Proc. Indian Sci. Congr., 45 (3): 428.

PRASAD, J. (1955): The skull, with special reference to the temporal region of the flying lizard, Draco dussumieri Dumeril and Bibron. – Proc. zool. Soc. Calcutta, 8: 39-64.

Draco fimbriatus KUHL, 1820

Fransen-Flugdrache / Fringed Flying Dragon

HONDA, M., OTA, H., SENGOKU, S. & T. HIKIDA (2000): Phylogenetic position of Draco fimbriatus, with a molecular perspective on the historical biogeography of the genus Draco (Reptilia: Agamidae). – Current Herpetology, 19: 43-55.

KUHL, H. (1820): Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie - Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Amphibien. - Hermannsche Buchhandlung, Frankfurt, 152 pp.


Draco fimbriatus fimbriatus KUHL, 1820


Draco fimbriatus punctatus


Draco formosus BOULENGER, 1900

Rotlappen-Flugdrache / Dusky Gliding Lizard

BAKER, N. (2016): Five species of gliding lizard Draco spp. at Gunung Pulai, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. – SEAVR, 2016: 110-112.

BOULENGER, G.A. (1900): Description of new batrachians and reptiles from Larut Hills, Perak. - Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 7: 186-193.

DIONG, C.H. & S.Y.T. SOON (1999): Size and shape description of oviductal eggs of Draco obscurus formosus (Squamata: Agamidae). - Asiatic Herpetological Research, 8: 25-28.


Draco guentheri BOULENGER, 1885

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

BOULENGER, G.A. (1885): Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. – London (Taylor & Francis). 436 S.

GRAY, J.E. (1831): A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. - In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed [V Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London: 481 + 110 pp.


Draco haematopogon GRAY,1831

Rotbart-Flugdrache / Red-barbed Flying Dragon

BOULENGER, G.A. (1885): Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. – London (Taylor & Francis). 436 S.

GRAY, J.E. (1831): A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. - In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed [V Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London: 481 + 110 pp.

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1992): A preliminary study of sexual dimorphism in wing morphology of five species of the flying lizards, genus Draco. – Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 14 (4): 178-183.



Draco indochinensis SMITH, 1928


SMITH, M.A. (1928): Description of a new species of Draco from the Indo-Chinese Region. - Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (10) 2: 248.


Draco iskandari MCGUIRE & BROWN, MUMPUNI, RIYANTO & ANDAYANI, 2007


McGUIRE, BROWN, MUMPUNI, RIYANTO & ANDAYANI (2007): The flying lizards of the Draco lineatus group: a taxonomic revision with descriptions of two new species. – Herpet. Monogr., 21 (1): 179-212.

The Draco lineatus group is a monophyletic assemblage confined to islands within Wallacea. Nine species are recognized, including two described as new. For each species, a synonymy, diagnosis, description of squamation and color pattern, and summaries of distribution and natural history are provided. We resolve several long-standing taxonomic misconceptions including (1) proper allocation of the name Draco lineatus, (2) exclusion of D. bimaculatus and D. modigliani from the D. lineatus group, and (3) proper allocation of the names D. beccarii and D. walkeri. Unlike all previous studies, we recognize three morphologically distinct taxa (here recognized as species) on the island of Sulawesi.


Draco jareckii LAZELL, 1992

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

LAZELL, J. (1992): New flying lizards and predictive biogeography of two Asian archipelagos. – Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 152: 475-505.

Draco lineatus DAUDIN, 1802

Linierter Flugdrache / Lined Flying Dragon

DAUDIN, F.M. (1802): Description of Draco lineatus. In: “Histoire Naturelle, génerale et particulièredes reptiles, ouvrage faisant suite, a l'histoire naturelle, générale et particulière…” vol. 3. F. Dufart, Paris.

LESSON, R.-P. (1834): Description of Draco bourouniensis. – In: “Illustrations de Zoologie”. Arthus Bertrand, Paris.

McGUIRE, BROWN, MUMPUNI, RIYANTO & ANDAYANI (2007): The flying lizards of the Draco lineatus group: a taxonomic revision with descriptions of two new species. – Herpet. Monogr., 21 (1): 179-212.

The Draco lineatus group is a monophyletic assemblage confined to islands within Wallacea. Nine species are recognized, including two described as new. For each species, a synonymy, diagnosis, description of squamation and color pattern, and summaries of distribution and natural history are provided. We resolve several long-standing taxonomic misconceptions including (1) proper allocation of the name Draco lineatus, (2) exclusion of D. bimaculatus and D. modigliani from the D. lineatus group, and (3) proper allocation of the names D. beccarii and D. walkeri. Unlike all previous studies, we recognize three morphologically distinct taxa (here recognized as species) on the island of Sulawesi.

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1992): A preliminary study of sexual dimorphism in wing morphology of five species of the flying lizards, genus Draco. – Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 14 (4): 178-183.


Draco lineatus lineatus DAUDIN, 1802

Lined Flying Dragon


Draco lineatus ochropterus WERNER, 1910

Lined Flying Dragon

WERNER, F. (1910): Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. - II. Eidechsen. - Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., vol. 27 (1909), suppl. no. 2, 1910: 1-46.


Draco maculatus GRAY, 1845

Gefleckter Flugdrache / Spotted Flying Dragon


Draco maculates maculatus (GRAY, 1845)

Gefleckter Flugdrache / Spotted Flying Dragon


Draco maculates divergens TAYLOR, 1934

Gefleckter Flugdrache / Spotted Flying Dragon


Draco maculates haasei BOETTGER, 1893

Gefleckter Flugdrache / Spotted Flying Dragon

BOETTGER, O. (1893): Ein neuer Drache (Draco) aus Siam. - Zoologischer Anzeiger, 16: 429-430.


Draco maculates whiteheadi BOULENGER,1900

Gefleckter Flugdrache / Spotted Flying Dragon

BOULENGER, G.A. (1900): On the reptiles, batrachians (and fishes) collected by the late Mr. john Whitehead in the interior of Hainan. - Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1899: 956-959.


Draco maximus BOULENGER, 1893

Grosser Flugdrache / Great Flying Dragon

BOULENGER, G.A. (1893): Description of new reptiles and batrachians obtained in Borneo by Mr. C. Hose and Mr. A. Everett. - Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893: 522-528.

DESPAX, R. (1912): Sur trois collections de reptiles et de batraciens provenant de l’Archipel Malais. - Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris, 18: 198-205.


Draco melanopogon BOULENGER, 1887

Schwarzbart-Flugdrache / Black-barbed Flying Dragon

BAKER, N. (2016): Five species of gliding lizard Draco spp. at Gunung Pulai, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. – SEAVR, 2016: 110-112.

SHINE, R., KEOGH, S., DOUGHTY, P. & H. GIRAGOSSYAN (1998): Costs of reproduction and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a “flying lizard” Draco melanopogon (Agamidae). – Journal of Zoology, London, 246: 203-213.


Draco melanopogon melanopogon BOULENGER,1887

Schwarzbart-Flugdrache / Black-barbed Flying Dragon


Draco melanopogon nigriappendiculatus BARTLKETT, 1894

Schwarzbart-Flugdrache / Black-barbed Flying Dragon

BARTLETT, E. (1895): The crocodiles and lizards of Borneo in the Sarawak Museum, with descriptions of supposed new species, and the variation of colours in the several species during life. – Journal of the Straits Branch Royal Asiatic Society Singapore, 28: 73-96.


Draco mindanensis STEJNEGER, 1908

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon

STEJNEGER, L. (1908): A new species of flying lizard from the Philippine Islands. - Proc. US Natl. Mus., 33: 677-679.


Draco modiglianii VINCIGUERRA, 1892

Modoglianis Flugdrache & Lined Flying Lizard

VINCIGUERRA, D. (1892): Description of Draco modiglianii. – In: “Rettili e batraci di Engano raccolti dal Dott. Elio Modigliani”. - Ann. Mus. civ. stor. nat. Genova, 2. Ser. 7 (32): 517-526.


Draco norvillii ALCOCK, 1895

Norvill´s Flying Lizard

ALCOCK, A. (1895): On a new species of Flying Lizard from Assam. – J. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 64: 14-15.


Draco obscurus BOULENGER, 1887

Rotlappen-Flugdrache / Dusky Gliding Lizard

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1992): A preliminary study of sexual dimorphism in wing morphology of five species of the flying lizards, genus Draco. – Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 14 (4): 178-183.


Draco obscurus obscurus BOULENGER,1887

Rotlkappen-Flugdrache / Dusky Gliding Lizard


Draco obscurus laetepictus HENNING,1936

Rotlkappen-Flugdrache / Dusky Gliding Lizard


Draco ornatus GRAY, 1845

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon


Draco palawanensis MCGUIRE & ALCALA, 2000

Palawan-Flugdrache

MCGUIRE, J.A. & A.C. ALCALA (2000): A taxonomic revision of the flying lizards (Iguania: Agamidae: Draco) of the Philippine Islands, with a description of a new species. – Herpetological Monographs, 14: 81-138.


Draco quadrasi BOETTGER, 1893

Quadras’ Flugdrache / Quadras’ Flying Lizard

BOETTGER, O. (1893): Description of Draco quadrasi. – In: “Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main”. I. Teil (Rhynchocephalen, Schildkröten, Krokodile, Eidechsen, Chamäleons). Gebrüder Knauer, Frankfurt a. M., x + 140 pp.


Draco quinquefasciatus HARDWICKE & GRAY, 1827

Fünfband-Flugdrache / Five-lined Flying Dragon

BAKER, N. (2016): Five species of gliding lizard Draco spp. at Gunung Pulai, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. – SEAVR, 2016: 110-112.


Draco reticulatus GÜNTHER, 1864

Flugdrache / Flying Dragon


Draco rhytisma MUSTERS, 1983



Draco spilonotus GÜNTHER,1872

Sulawesi-Flugdrache

GÜNTHER, A. (1872): On the reptiles and amphibians of Borneo. - Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1872: 586-600.


Draco spilopterus (WIEGMANN, 1834)

Philippinischer Flugdrache / Philippine Flying Dragon

KUZMIN, Y., TKACH, V.V. & S.E. BUSH (2012): A new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Agamid lizards on Luzon Island, Philippines. – Journal of Parasitology, 98 (3): 608-611.

Rhabdias odilebaini n. sp. is described on the basis of specimens found in the lungs of 2 species of agamid lizards: the Philippine flying lizard Draco spilopterus and the marbled bloodsucker Bronchocela marmorata. Specimens were collected in Aurora Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. The new species of Rhabdias is characterized by presence of 4 submedian lips, inconspicuous lateral lips, rounded cross-shaped oral opening, and tail end bent dorsally. This species is morphologically distinct from other Rhabdias spp. that parasitize reptilian and amphibian hosts, including 3 other species known to parasitize lizards of the Agamidae.

MÄGDEFRAU, H. & K. MÄGDEFRAU (1994): Erstnachzucht von philippinischen Flugdrachen, Draco spilopterus, in der zweiten Generation. - Salamandra, Bonn, 30 (1): 1-11. (557)

MÄGDEFRAU, K. (1991): Haltung, Verhaltensbeobachtungen und Zuchtversuche von Draco spilopterus (WIEGMANN, 1834). - herpetofauna, 13 (74): 29-34. (1468)

TKACH, V.V, KUZMIN, Y. & R.M. BROWN (2011): Rhabdias mcguirei sp. nov. (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae) from the flying lizard, Draco spilopterus (Squamata, Agamidae) of the northern Philippines. – Acta Parasitol., 56 (4): 406-411.

Rhabdias mcguirei sp. nov., is described on the basis of specimens found in the lungs of northern Philippine flying lizards, Draco spilopterus (Reptilia, Agamidae) collected in Aurora province, Luzon Island, Philippines. It is characterized by a rounded oral opening, a buccal capsule consisting of anterior and posterior parts, and the shape of the cuticular inflation in the anterior part of the body: the cuticle is less inflated in the anterior-most part, with the inflation gradually thickening up to the level of the oesophageal-intestinal junction. The new species is differentiated from the 11 most closely related species of Rhabdias previously known from lizards.


Draco sumatranus SCHLEGEL, 1844

Sumatra-Flugdrache / Common Gliding Lizard

BAKER, N. (2016): Five species of gliding lizard Draco spp. at Gunung Pulai, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. – SEAVR, 2016: 110-112.

KLOMP, D.A., STUART-FOX, D., DAS, I. & T.J. ORD (2017): Gliding lizards use the position of the sun to enhance social display. – Biology Letters, 13: 20160979.

Effective communication requires animal signals to be readily detected by receivers in the environments in which they are typically given. Certain light conditions enhance the visibility of colour signals and these conditions can vary depending on the orientation of the sun and the position of the signaller. We tested whether Draco sumatranus gliding lizards modified their position relative to the sun to enhance the conspicuousness of their throat-fan (dewlap) during social display to conspecifics. The dewlap was translucent, and we found that lizards were significantly more likely to orient themselves perpendicular to the sun when displaying. This increases the dewlap’s radiance, and likely, its conspicuousness, by increasing the amount of light transmitted through the ornament. This is a rare example of a behavioural adaptation for enhancing the visibility of an ornament to distant receivers.

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1993): Natural history observations of the flying lizard, Draco volans sumatranus (Agamidae, Squamata) from Sarawak, Malaysia. – Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 41 (1): 83-94.

A field study of Draco volans sumatranus was conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia. Adult females were significantly larger than adult males in snout-vent length (SVL). Clutch size varied, independent of maternal SVL, from one to five. The lizards were strictly arboreal and diurnally active with two peaks of activity before and after noon. There were no differences in perch height between the sexes. The number of males observed was correlated with air temperature. Lack of thermoregulatory behavior and the relationship between body temperature and air temperature suggest that the flying lizard is thermally passive. Home ranges of resident males consisted of one to three adjacent trees, which wholly overlapped with those of one to three females. In most cases, resident males were larger than intruder males both in SVL and dewlap length.

SCHLEGEL, H. (1844): Description of Draco sumatranus. – In: “Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien, nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen”. Düsseldorf (Arnz & Comp.), i-xiv + 141 pp. [1837-1844].


Draco supriatnai MCGUIRE & BROWN, MUMPUNI, RIYANTO & ANDAYANI, 2007


McGUIRE, BROWN, MUMPUNI, RIYANTO & ANDAYANI (2007): The flying lizards of the Draco lineatus group: a taxonomic revision with descriptions of two new species. – Herpet. Monogr., 21 (1): 179-212.

The Draco lineatus group is a monophyletic assemblage confined to islands within Wallacea. Nine species are recognized, including two described as new. For each species, a synonymy, diagnosis, description of squamation and color pattern, and summaries of distribution and natural history are provided. We resolve several long-standing taxonomic misconceptions including (1) proper allocation of the name Draco lineatus, (2) exclusion of D. bimaculatus and D. modigliani from the D. lineatus group, and (3) proper allocation of the names D. beccarii and D. walkeri. Unlike all previous studies, we recognize three morphologically distinct taxa (here recognized as species) on the island of Sulawesi.


Draco taeniopterus GÜNTHER, 1861

Gebänderter Flugdrache / Thai Flying Dragon / Barred Flying Dragon

GOLDBERG, S.R. & GRISMER, L.L. (2016): Draco taeniopterus (Barred Gliding Lizard). Reproduction. - Herpetological Review, 47 (4): 669.


Draco timoriensis KUHL, 1820

Timor-Flugdrache / Timor Flying Dragon

KUHL, H. (1820): Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie - Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Amphibien. - Hermannsche Buchhandlung, Frankfurt, 152 pp.


Draco volans LINNAEUS, 1758

Gewöhnlicher Flugdrache / Javanischer Flugdrache / Common Flying Dragon

ALAGARSWAMI, K., LAL MOHAN, R.S., JAMES, D.B. & A.C. ALCALA (1967): Population biology of the ´flying´ lizard, Draco volans, on Negros Island, Philippines. – Nat. appl. Sci. Bull. Univ. Philipp., 20: 335-372.

ALCALA, A.C. (1966): Populations of three tropical lizards on Negros Island, Philippines. Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 320 pp.

ALCALA, A.C. (1967): Population biology of the „flying“ lizard, Draco volans, on Negros Island, Philippines. – Nat.appl. Sci. Bull. Univ. Philipp., 20: 335-372.

BLASS, G. (1966): Ich fange fliegende Drachen. – Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift, Stuttgart, 19 (11): 347-349.

BLASS, G. (1977): The flying lizard (Draco volans). – Nordisk herpet. Foren., 20 (2): 36-40. (in Dänisch)

CARD, W.C. (1994): Draco volans (flying dragon). Reproduction. – Herpetological Review, 25 (2): 65.

GRAUWMEIJER, E. (1981): Draco volans. – Lacerta, 39 (8): 113.

HAIRSTON, N.G. (1957): Observations on the behavior of Draco volans in the Philippines. – Copeia, 1957 (4): 262-265.

KÄSTLE, W. (1972): Keine Angst vor Flugdrachen. - Aquarien Magazin, Stuttgart, 6 (9): 376-378.

KLINGEL, H. (1965): Über das Flugverhalten von Draco volans (Agamidae) und verwandten Arten. – Zoologischer Anzeiger, 175 (4/6): 273-281.

KLYNSTRA, F.B. (1959): Draco volans. – Lacerta, 17: 57-59.

LEDERER, G. (1932): Beobachtungen an Flugdrachen (Draco volans L.). – Zool. Gart. Leipzig, 5: 285-287.

LINNAEUS, C. (1758): Description of the genus Draco and type species volans. - In: “Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis”. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp.

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1992): A preliminary study of sexual dimorphism in wing morphology of five species of the flying lizards, genus Draco. – Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 14 (4): 178-183.

MORI, A. & T. HIKIDA (1993): Natural history observations of the flying lizard, Draco volans sumatranus (Agamidae, Squamata) from Sarawak, Malaysia. – Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 41 (1): 83-94.

A field study of Draco volans sumatranus was conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia. Adult females were significantly larger than adult males in snout-vent length (SVL). Clutch size varied, independent of maternal SVL, from one to five. The lizards were strictly arboreal and diurnally active with two peaks of activity before and after noon. There were no differences in perch height between the sexes. The number of males observed was correlated with air temperature. Lack of thermoregulatory behavior and the relationship between body temperature and air temperature suggest that the flying lizard is thermally passive. Home ranges of resident males consisted of one to three adjacent trees, which wholly overlapped with those of one to three females. In most cases, resident males were larger than intruder males both in SVL and dewlap length.

PETZOLD, H.-G. (1974): Erfolg und Mißerfolg mit javanischen Flugdrachen ´Draco volans`. – Aquar. Terrar., Leipzig, 21 (5): 158-163. (1471)

PFEFFER, P. (1962): Parades et comportement territorial chez trios espèces de Dragons-volans (Agamides) d´Indonesie. – Terre et la Vie,109 (4): 417-427.

REYES, A.Y. (1968): The food habits of Draco volans Linnaeus. – Silliman J., 15: 353-356.

RUSSEL, A.P. & L.D. DIJKSTRA (2001): Patagial morphology of Draco volans (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the origin of glissant locomotion in flying dragons. - J. Zool., 253: 457-471.

The integrative patagial morphology of Draco volans was examined to elucidate the possible evolutionary pathway of origin of active patagia in the flying dragons and in extinct taxa that are thought to have possessed similarly constructed flight membranes. The area of the patagia and accessory aerodynamic surfaces is compared between Draco volans and Ptychozoon kuhli, a gekkonid with passive patagia. Comparisons of patagial area are also made between selected species of Draco. Scale architecture of the patagium of Draco is described and is related to pertinent aspects of the structure and properties of the integument. The relationships of these characteristics to the morphology of the ribs and their related musculature are emphasized. The overall assessment of these features in relation to patagial form is employed to develop an evolutionary scenario for the origin of active patagia.

TELFORD Jr., SD.R. (1995): Plasmodium spp. (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae) of the flying lizard Draco volans (Agamidae). – Systematic Parasitology, 31 (1): 53-60.



Draco walkeri BOULENGER, 1891

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