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Literatur und Schriften


Ctenophorus (FITZINGER,1843)

Soldatenagamen

MELVILLE, J., SCHULTE, J.A. & A. LARSON (2001): A molecular phylogenetic study of ecological diversification in the Australian lizard genus Ctenophorus. - Journal of Experimental Zoology: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 291(4): 339-353.

WYLIE, D.R., HOOPS, D., ASPDEN, J.W. & A.N. IWANIUK (2016): Zebrin II Is Expressed in Sagittal Stripes in the Cerebellum of Dragon Lizards (Ctenophorus sp.). - Brain Behav. Evol., 88: 177–186.

Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII–). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida. We focused on the central netted dragon (Ctenophorus nuchalis) but also examined cerebellar ZII expression in 5 other dragon species ( Ctenophorus spp.). In contrast to what has been observed in snakes and turtles, we found that in these lizards, ZII is heterogeneously expressed. In the posterior part of the cerebellum, on each side of the midline, there were 3 sagittal stripes consisting of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with 2 sagittal stripes with weaker ZII expression (ZIIw). More anteriorly, most of the Purkinje cells were ZII+, except laterally, where the Purkinje cells did not express ZII (ZII–). Finally, all Purkinje cells in the auricle (flocculus) were ZII–. Overall, the parasagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards is similar to that in mammals and birds, and contrasts with the homogenous ZII+ expression seen in snakes and turtles. We suggest that a sagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII represents the ancestral condition in stem reptiles which was lost in snakes and turtles.


Ctenophorus adelaidensis (GRAY, 1841)

Western Heath Dragon

DAVIS, R.A. & J. WILCOX (2008): Range extension of the Western Heath Dragon Rankinia adelaidensis and Gray’s legless lizard Delma grayi with notes on the distribution of southern Swan coastal-plain reptiles. – Western Australian Naturalist, 26 (1): 67-70.

GRAY, J.E. (1841): Description of some new species and four new genera of reptiles from Western Australia, discovered by John Gould, Esq. - Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 7: 86-91.

GRAY, J.E. (1841): A catalogue of the species of reptiles and Amphibia hitherto described as inhabiting Australia, with a description of some new species from Western Australia. Appendix E, pp. 422-449. - In: G. Grey, Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in Northwest T. and W. Boone, London. Vol. 2: 422-449 + plates.

GREER, A.E. & G. SHEA (1997): Notes on an unusual colour feature and reproduction in the dragon lizard Rankinia adelaidensis adelaidensis. - Herpetofauna (Sydney), 27(2): 75.

MELVILLE, J., SHOO, L.P. & P. DOUGHTY (2008): Phylogenetic relationships of the heath dragons (Rankinia adelaidensis and R. parviceps) from the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot. - Australian Journal of Zoology, 56 (3): 159-171.

STORR, G.M. (1977): The Amphibolurus adelaidensis species group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – Record W. Aust. Mus., 5 (1): 73-81.

THOMPSON, S.A., THOMPSON, G.G. & J.E. OATES (2008): Range extension of the Western Heath Dragon Rankinia adelaidensis adelaidensis (Squamata: Agamidae). – J. Roy. Soc. West. Aust., 91 (2): 207-208.

Two recent captures and a sighting of Rankinia adelaidensis increase its recorded geographical distribution in a southerly direction. In accordance with other recent range extensions recorded south of the Swan River, it is probable that the geographical distributions for other species will be extended into the southern coastal plain with further surveys.

TYLER, M.J. (1960): Observations on the diet and size variation of Amphibolurus adelaidensis (Gray) (Reptilia-Agamidae) on the Nullarbor Plain. – Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 83: 111-117.


Ctenophorus butlerorum (STORR, 1977)


GREER, A.E. (1987): Taxonomic and natural history notes on Tympanocryptis butleri and T. parviceps. - West. Aust. Nat., 17 (1): 13-16.

STORR, G.M. (1977): The Amphibolurus adelaidensis species group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – Record W. Aust. Mus., 5 (1): 73-81.

This essentially southwestern group of small agamids consists of four taxa in Western Australia: Amphibolurus p. parviceps (Storr), A. p. butleri nov., A. a. adelaidensis (Gray), and A. a. chapmani novo.

Ctenophorus caudicinctus (GÜNTHER, 1875)

Ring-tailed Bicycle-dragon / Ring-tailed Dragon

BRADSHAW, S.D., SAINT GIRONS, H. & F.J. BRADSHAW (1991): Patterns of breeding in two species of agamid lizards in the arid subtropical Pilbara region of Western Australia. – Gen. Comp. Endocr., 82: 407-422.

PIANKA, E.R. (2014): Notes on the ecology and natural history of Ctenophorus caudicinctus (Agamidae) in Western Australia. – West. Aust. Nat., 29 (3): 226-230.

STORR, G.M. (1967): Geographic races of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus caudicinctus. – J. Proc. R. Soc. West. Aust., 50: 49-56.


Ctenophorus chapmani (STORR, 1967)

Bight Heath Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1977): The Amphibolurus adelaidensis species group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – Record W. Aust. Mus., 5 (1): 73-81.

This essentially southwestern group of small agamids consists of four taxa in Western Australia: Amphibolurus p. parviceps (Storr), A. p. butleri nov., A. a. adelaidensis (Gray), and A. a. chapmani novo.


Ctenophorus clayi (STORR, 1967)

Black-shouldered Ground-dragon

GREER, A.E. (1987): Observations on the osteology and natural history of the agamid lizard Ctenophorus clayi. - West. Aust. Nat., 17(1): 5-7.

STORR, G.M. (1966): The Amphibolurus reticulates species group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Proc. Roy. Soc. W.Aust., 49: 17-25.

Ctenophorus cristatus (GRAY, 1841)

Crested Bicycle-dragon / Crested Dragon

GRAY, J.E. (1841): Description of some new species and four new genera of reptiles from Western Australia, discovered by John Gould, Esq. - Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 7: 86-91.

PIANKA, E.R. (1971): Notes on the biology of Amphibolurus cristatus and Amphibolurus scutulatus. – West. Aust. Nat., 12: 36-41.


Ctenophorus decresii (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837)

Tawny Creviced-dragon / Tawny Dragon

DUMÉRIL, A.M.C. & G. BIBRON (1837): Description of Ctenophorus decresii. – In: “Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles”. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp.

GIBBONS, J.R.H. (1977): Comparative ecology and behaviour of lizards of the Amphibolurus decresii species complex. Thesis. University of Adelaide, South Australia.

GIBBONS, J.R.H. (1979): The hind leg pushup display of the Amphibolurus decresii species complex (Lacertilia: Agamidae). – Coipeia, 1979: 29-40.

HOUSTON, T.F. (1974): Revision of the Amphibolurus decresii complex (Lacertilia: Agamidae) of South Australia. – Transactions R. Soc. S. Aust., 98 (2): 49-60.

MCLEAN, C.A., MOUSSALLI, A., SASS, S. & D. STUART-FOX (2013): Taxonomic assessment of the Ctenophorus decresii complex (Reptilia: Agamidae) reveals a new species of Dragon Lizard from Western New South Wales. - Records of the Australian Museum. 65(3): 51–63.

We describe a new species of agamid lizard, Ctenophorus mirrityana sp.nov. currently known from two disjunct populations in western New South Wales. The species is a member of the C. decresii species complex, and was formerly recognized as an outlying population of C. decresii due to similarities in dorsal colour pattern and adjacent distributions. Previous work documented deep molecular divergence, across multiple loci, with no genetic admixture between the new species and proximal C. decresii populations. We find that the new species differs in morphology from all other members of the species complex and is characterized by distinct male throat and lateral coloration, a small head size relative to snout-vent length, a large number of labial scales, and a lack of tubercular scales. We also identify two geographically structured lineages (northern and southern) within C. decresii as requiring further taxonomic investigation, based on notable genetic and morphological (including colour) divergence. We find that divergence in coloration is associated with genetic and body form differentiation within the C. decresii species complex.

RANKIN K. & D. STUART-FOX (2015): Testosterone-induced expression of male colour morphs in females of the polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii. - PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140458, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140458.

Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour morphs (orange, yellow, grey and an orange central patch surrounded by yellow). We used silastic implants to experimentally elevate testosterone levels in mature females to induce colour expression. Testosterone elevation resulted in a substantial increase in the proportion and intensity of orange but not yellow colouration, which was present in a subset of females prior to treatment. Consequently, females exhibited the same set of colour morphs as males, and we confirmed that these morphs are objectively classifiable, by using digital image analyses and spectral reflectance measurements, and occur in similar frequencies as in males. These results indicate that the influence of testosterone differs for different colours, suggesting that their expression may be governed by different proximate hormonal mechanisms. Thus, caution must be exercised when using artificial testosterone manipulation to induce female expression of sexlimited colour polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the ability to express sex-limited colours (in this case orange) to reveal the same, objectively classifiable morphs in similar frequencies to males suggests autosomal rather than sex-linked inheritance, and can facilitate further research on the genetic basis of colour polymorphism, including estimating heritability and selection on colour morphs from pedigree data.

UMBERS, K.D.L., OSBORNE, L. & J.S. KEOGH (2012): The Effects of Residency and Body Size on Contest Initiation and Outcome in the Territorial Dragon, Ctenophorus decresii. – PlosOne 7 (10): e47143 5 pp.

Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii), a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them.


Ctenophorus femoralis (STORR,1965)

Long-tailed Sand-dragon

GREER, A.E. (1989): Observations on the osteology and natural history of the agamid lizard Ctenophorus femoralis. – West. Aust. Nat., 18 /1): 21-23.

STORR, G.M. (1965): The Amphibolurus maculatus species-group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Royal Soc. West. Australia, 48 (2): 45-54.


Ctenophorus fionni (PROCTER,1923)

Peninsula Crevis-dragon / Peninsula Dragon

PROCTER, J. B. (1923): On new and rare reptiles and batrachians from the Australian region. - Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1923: 1069-1077.

Several interesting collections from the Australian Region have recently been received by the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). I .shall include four in this one paper, and limit it for the sake of brevity to notes on rarities and descriptions of new species.


Ctenophorus fordi (STORR, 1965)

Mallee Sand-dragon / Mallee Dragon

COGGER, H.G. (1974): Thermal relations of the malle dragon Amphibolurus fordi (Lacertilia: Agamidae). – Australian Journal of Zoology, 22 (3): 319-339.

A field study of the thermal relationships of the small agamid lizard A. fordi has been carried out in two areas of mallee in central western New South Wales, where this lizard occurs only in close association with the grass Triodia scariosa. The body temperatures characteristic of various phases in this lizard's die1 cycle have been determined. The behavioural techniques employed to regulate temperature are described; they are similar to those used by a wide range of diurnal heliothermic lizards in other regions. The total effect of these thermoregulatory responses is to maintain an internal thermal environ- ment approaching homoiothermy while the lizard is active. For A. fordi the eccritic body temperature determined from animals in the field is 36.9+-0.16C. Lowering of activity thermal levels occurs in winter, and can be induced at any time by even mild starvation.

COGGER, H.G. (1978): Reproductive cycles, fat body cycles and socio-sexual behavior in the Mallee dragon, Amphibolurus fordi (Lacertrilia: Agamidae). – Aust. J. Zool., 26: 653-672.

Ctenophorus gibba (HOUSTON, 1974)

Bulldust Ground-dragon

HOUSTON, T.F. (1974): Amphibolurus gibba, a new dragon lizard (Lacertilia: Agamidae) from northern South Australia. – Transactions R. Soc. S. Aust., 98 (4): 209-212.

HOUSTON, T.F. (1976): Vertebrate type-specimens in the South Australian Museum. III. Reptiles. - Rec. South Austral. Mus., 17: 181-187.


Ctenophorus graafi (STORR,1967)


Graaf's Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1967): Geographic races of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus caudicinctus. – J. Proc. R. Soc. West. Aust., 50: 49-56.


Ctenophorus infans (STORR, 1967)


STORR, G.M. (1967): Geographic races of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus caudicinctus. – J. Proc. R. Soc. West. Aust., 50: 49-56.


Ctenophorus isolepis (FISCHER, 1881)

Military Sand-dragon / Military Dragon

DICKMAN, C.R., LETNIC, M. & P.S. MAHON (1999): Population dynamics of two species of dragon lizards in arid Australia: the effects of rainfall. – Oecologia, 119: 357-366.

The population dynamics of two species of agamid (dragon) lizards were studied in the Simpson Desert, central Australia, over a period of 7 years, and modelled in relation to rainfall. Both species have annual life cycles, with adults predominating during the breeding season in spring and summer and juveniles predominating in other seasons. Within years, juvenile abundance in both species in autumn and winter was related most strongly to rainfall in the preceding summer and autumn. This pattern suggests that rainfall enhances survival, growth and possibly clutch size and hatching success. Between years, however, rainfall drove successional change in the dominant plant species in the study area, spinifex Triodia basedowii, causing in turn a shift in the relative abundance of the two species. Thus, the central netted dragon Ctenophorus nuchalis was most numerous in 1990 when vegetation cover was <10%, but declined dramatically in abundance after heavy rainfall at the end of that year. In contrast, the military dragon C. isolepis achieved greatest abundance following heavy rains in the summers of 1990 and 1994, when spinifex cover increased to >20%, and remained numerically dominant for much of the study. We suggest that drought-wet cycles periodically reverse the dominance of the two species of Ctenophorus, and perhaps of other lizard species also, thus enhancing local species diversity over time. Further long-term studies are needed to document the population dynamics of other species, and to identify the factors that inuence them.

FISCHER, J.G. (1881): Beschreibung neuer Reptilien. - Archiv für Naturgeschichte 47 (1): 225-238.

LOSOS, J.B. (1987): Postures of the Military Dragon (Ctenophorus isolepis) in relation to substrate temperature. - Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 8: 419-423. (1453)

PIANKA, E.R. (1971): Ecology of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus isolepis in Western Australia. – Copeia, 1971: 527-536.

Ctenophorus isolepis isolepis (FISCHER, 1881)

Military Sand-dragon / Military Dragon


Ctenophorus isolepis citrinus (STORR, 1965)

Military Sand-dragon / Military Dragon


Ctenophorus isolepis gularis (STERNFELD, 1925)

Military Sand-dragon / Military Dragon


Ctenophorus maculatus (GRAY, 1831)

Spotted Sand-dragon / Spotted Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1965): The Amphibolurus maculates species-group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Royal Soc. West. Australia, 48 (2): 45-54.


Ctenophorus maculates maculatus (GRAY, 1831)

Spotted Sand-dragon / Spotted Dragon


Ctenophorus maculates badius (STORR, 1965)

Spotted Sand-dragon / Spotted Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1965): The Amphibolurus maculatus species-group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Royal Soc. West. Australia, 48 (2): 45-54.

Ctenophorus maculates dualis (STORR, 1965)

Spotted Sand-dragon / Spotted Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1965): The Amphibolurus maculatus species-group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Royal Soc. West. Australia, 48 (2): 45-54.


Ctenophorus maculates griseus (STORR, 1965)

Spotted Sand-dragon / Spotted Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1965): The Amphibolurus maculatus species-group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Royal Soc. West. Australia, 48 (2): 45-54.


Ctenophorus maculosus (MITCHELL, 1948)

Salt-Lake Ground-dragon / Lake Eyre Dragon

MITCHELL, F.J. (1948): A revision of the lacertilian genus Tympanocryptis. - Rec. South Austral. Mus. 9: 57-86.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1965): The affinities of Tympanocryptis maculosa Mitchell (Lacertilia: Agamidae). – Rec. S. Aus. Mus., 15: 179-191.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1973): Studies on the ecology of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus maculosus (Mitchell). – Transactions R. Soc. S. Aust., 97 (1): 47-76.

OLSSON, M. (1995): territorialità in Lake Eyre dragons Ctenophorus maculosus: are males ‘superterritorial’? – Ethology, 101 (3): 222-227.

STUART-FOX, D. & J.L. GOODE (2014): Female ornamentation influences male courtship investment in a lizard. – Front. Ecol. Evol., 2 (2): article 2.


Ctenophorus mckenziei STORR, 1981

Dwarf Bicycle-dragon

PETERSON, M., SHEA, G.M. & B. MILLER (1994): Notes on the morphology and biology of Ctenophorus mckenziei (Storr, 1981) (Squamata: Agamidae). – Transactons of the Royal Society of South Australia, 118 (3/4): 237.

STORR, G.M. (1981): Three new agamid lizards from Western Australia. – Rec. West. Aust. Mus., 8 (4): 599-607.


Ctenophorus mirrityana MCLEAN, MOUSSALLI, SASS & STUART-FOX, 2013

Barrier Range Dragon

MCFADDEN, M.S. & D. PURCELL (2015): Ctenophorus mirrityana (barrier range dragon) longevity. Herpetological Review, 46 (3): 372.

MCLEAN, C.A., MOUSSALLI, A., SASS, S. & D. STUART-FOX (2013): Taxonomic assessment of the Ctenophorus decresii complex (Reptilia: Agamidae) reveals a new species of Dragon Lizard from Western New South Wales. - Records of the Australian Museum. 65(3): 51–63.

We describe a new species of agamid lizard, Ctenophorus mirrityana sp.nov. currently known from two disjunct populations in western New South Wales. The species is a member of the C. decresii species complex, and was formerly recognized as an outlying population of C. decresii due to similarities in dorsal colour pattern and adjacent distributions. Previous work documented deep molecular divergence, across multiple loci, with no genetic admixture between the new species and proximal C. decresii populations. We find that the new species differs in morphology from all other members of the species complex and is characterized by distinct male throat and lateral coloration, a small head size relative to snout-vent length, a large number of labial scales, and a lack of tubercular scales. We also identify two geographically structured lineages (northern and southern) within C. decresii as requiring further taxonomic investigation, based on notable genetic and morphological (including colour) divergence. We find that divergence in coloration is associated with genetic and body form differentiation within the C. decresii species complex.


Ctenophorus nguyarna DOUGHTY, MARYAN, MELVILLE & AUSTIN, 2007

Lake Disappointment Dragon

DOUGHTY, MARYAN, MELVILLE & AUSTIN (2007): A new species of Ctenophorus (Lacertilia: Agamidae) from Lake Disappointment, Western Australia. – Herpetologica, 63 (1): 75.


Ctenophorus nuchalis (DE VIS, 1884)

Australische Bodenagame / Central Netted Dragon,Central Netted Ground-dragon

BRADSHAW, S.D., SAINT GIRONS, H. & F.J. BRADSHAW (1991): Patterns of breeding in two species of agamid lizards in the arid subtropical Pilbara region of Western Australia. – Gen. Comp. Endocr., 82: 407-422.

DICKMAN, C.R., LETNIC, M. & P.S. MAHON (1999): Population dynamics of two species of dragon lizards in arid Australia: the effects of rainfall. – Oecologia, 119: 357-366.

The population dynamics of two species of agamid (dragon) lizards were studied in the Simpson Desert, central Australia, over a period of 7 years, and modelled in relation to rainfall. Both species have annual life cycles, with adults predominating during the breeding season in spring and summer and juveniles predominating in other seasons. Within years, juvenile abundance in both species in autumn and winter was related most strongly to rainfall in the preceding summer and autumn. This pattern suggests that rainfall enhances survival, growth and possibly clutch size and hatching success. Between years, however, rainfall drove successional change in the dominant plant species in the study area, spinifex Triodia basedowii, causing in turn a shift in the relative abundance of the two species. Thus, the central netted dragon Ctenophorus nuchalis was most numerous in 1990 when vegetation cover was <10%, but declined dramatically in abundance after heavy rainfall at the end of that year. In contrast, the military dragon C. isolepis achieved greatest abundance following heavy rains in the summers of 1990 and 1994, when spinifex cover increased to >20%, and remained numerically dominant for much of the study. We suggest that drought-wet cycles periodically reverse the dominance of the two species of Ctenophorus, and perhaps of other lizard species also, thus enhancing local species diversity over time. Further long-term studies are needed to document the population dynamics of other species, and to identify the factors that inuence them.

GARLAND, T.J.R. (1985): Ontogenetic and individual variation in size, shape and speed in the Australian agamid lizard Amphibolurus nuchalis. - J. Zool., Lond., A 207: 425-439.

The present study investigates relationships among size, shape and speed in the Australian agamid lizard Amphibolurus nuchalis. Maximal running speed, body mass, snout-vent length, tail length, fore- and hind limb spans and thigh muscle mass were measured in 68 field-fresh individuals spanning the entire ontogenetic size range (1.3 48 g). Relative lengths of both foreand hind limbs decrease with increasing body mass ( = negative allometry), whereas relative tail length and thigh muscle mass increase with body mass ( = positive allometry). Repeatable and significant differences in maximal running speed exist among individuals. Maximal running speed scales as (body mass)O'161, and 590,; of the variation in maximal speed was related to body mass. Based on the results of the present and previousstudies, data on scaling of body proportions alone appear inadequate to infer scaling relationships of functional characters such as top speed. Surprisingly, individual variation in maximal speed is not related to individual variation in shape (relative limb, tail and body lengths). These components of overall shape are not independent; individuals tended to have either relatively long or relatively short limbs, tails and bodies for their body mass. Even the significant difference in multivariate shape between adult males and females has no measurable consequences for maximal speed. Speeds of field-fresh animals did not vary on a seasonal basis, and eight weeks of captivity had no effect on maximal running speeds. Gravid females and long-term (obese) captive lizards were both approximately 12q; slower than field-fresh lizards.

HEATWOLE; H. (1970): Thermal ecology of the Desert dragon Amphibolurus inermis. – Ecol. Monogr., 40: 425-457.

KLAGES, H.G. (1982): Pflege und Nachzucht der australischen Bodenagame Amphibolurus nuchalis (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main, 18 (1/2): 65-70. (00.074)

Zusammenfassung:
Es wird über die Haltung und erstmalige Nachzucht der Agame Amphibolurus nuchalis berichtet. Ein erstes Gelege wurde im September, weitere im Oktober und im November erhalten, von denen sich das erste als unbefruchtet erwies. Bei 27°C dauerte es 75 bis 79 Tage bis zum Schlupf der Jungen. In den ersten neun Tagen nach dem Schlupf wird keine Nahrung angenommen.

NAGY, K.A. & S.D. BRADSHAW (1995): Energetics, osmoregulation, and food consumption by free-living desert lizards, Ctenophorus (= Amphibolurus) nuchalis. – Amphibia-Reptilia, 16 (1): 25-35.

RANKIN, P.R. (1977): Burrow plugging in the Netted Dragon Amphibolurus nuchalis with reports on the occurrence in three other Australian agamids. – Herpetofauna, Vic. Australia, 9 (1): 18-22.

VIS, C.W. de (1884): On new species of Australian lizards. - Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 1: 97-100.


Ctenophorus ornatus (GRAY, 1845)

Ornate Crevice-dragon / Ornate Dragon

BARBOUR, H.R., ARCHER, M.A., HART, N.S., THOMAS, N., DULOP, S.A., BEAZLEY, L.D. & J. SHAND (2002): Retinal characteristics of the ornate dragon lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. – J. Comp. Neurol., 450: 334-344.

BAVERSTOCK, P.R. (1975): Effect of variations in rate of growth on physiological parameters in the lizard Amphibolurus ornatus. – Comparative Biochem. Physiol. (A), 51 (3): 619-631.

BAVERSTOCK, P.R. & S.D. BRADSHAW (1975): Variation in rate of growth and adrenal corticosteroidogenesis in field and laboratory populations of the lizard Amphibolurus ornatus. – Comparative Biochem. Physiol. (A), 52 (3): 557-565.

BEAZLEY, L.D., SHEARD, P.W., TENNANT, M., STARAC, D. & S.A. DUNLOP (1997): Optic nerve regenerates but does not restore topographic projections in the lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. – Journal of Comparative Neurology, 377 (1): 105-120.

BRADSHAW, F.J. & S.D. BRADSHAW (1996): Arginine vasotocin: locus of action along the nephronj of the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus. – General and Comparative Endocrinology, 103 (3): 281-289.

BRADSHAW, S.D. & SHOEMAKER, V.H. (1967): Aspects of water and electrolyte changes in a field population of Amphibolurus lizards. – Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 20: 855-865.

LeBAS, N.R. (2001): Microsatelite determionation of male reproductive success in a natural population of the territorial ornate dragon, Ctenophorus ornatus. – Mol. Ecol., 10: 193-203.

LeBAS, N.R. & N.J. MARSHALL (2000): The role of colour in signalling and male choice in the agamid lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. – Proc. R. Soc. London B. 267: 445-452.

LeBAS, N.R. & N.J. MARSHALL (2001): No evidence of female choice for a condition-depended trait in the Agamid lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus. – Behaviour 138: 965-980.

Female choice has rarely been documented in reptiles. In this study we examined the variation, condition-dependence and female preference for a range of male morphological and colour traits in the agamid lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus. Colour traits were measured with reectance spectrophotometry which allows the accurate quanti. cation of colour traits independent of the human visual system. All the colour traits varied greatly in brightness but only the throat showed high variationin the spectral shape. For the morphological traits, chest patch size showed the highest amount of variation and was also condition-dependent.Males with a larger chest patch also had a patch which was a darker black. Female mate choice trials were conducted on male chest patch size and body size, which is the trait females have preferred in other lizard species. Females showed no preference, measured as spatial association, for larger males or males with bigger chest patches. In post-hoc tests females did not prefer males with brighter throats or darker chests. Our . ndings suggest that females show no spatial discrimination between males on the basis of a range of traits most expected to in influence female choice.

LeBAS, N.R. & P.B.S. SPENCER (2000): Polymorphic microsatellite markers in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus. - Molecular Ecology, 9 : 365–378.

LEVY, E., KENNINGTON, W.J., TOMKINS, J.L. & N.R. LeBAS et al (2012): Phylogeography and population genetic structure of the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus. – PLOS One 7 (10): e46351: 1-11.

Species inhabiting ancient, geologically stable landscapes that have been impacted by agriculture and urbanisation are expected to have complex patterns of genetic subdivision due to the influence of both historical and contemporary gene flow. Here, we investigate genetic differences among populations of the granite outcrop-dwelling lizard Ctenophorus ornatus, a phenotypically variable species with a wide geographical distribution across the south-west of Western Australia. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data revealed two distinct evolutionary lineages that have been isolated for more than four million years within the C. ornatus complex. This evolutionary split is associated with a change in dorsal colouration of the lizards from deep brown or black to reddish-pink. In addition, analysis of microsatellite data revealed high levels of genetic structuring within each lineage, as well as strong isolation by distance at multiple spatial scales. Among the 50 outcrop populations’ analysed, non-hierarchical Bayesian clustering analysis revealed the presence of 23 distinct genetic groups, with outcrop populations less than 4 km apart usually forming a single genetic group. When a hierarchical analysis was carried out, almost every outcrop was assigned to a different genetic group. Our results show there are multiple levels of genetic structuring in C. ornatus, reflecting the influence of both historical and contemporary evolutionary processes. They also highlight the need to recognise the presence of two evolutionarily distinct lineages when making conservation management decisions on this species.

WILLIAMS, D.L. (2016): Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function. - Eye, 31: 167-172.

Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.


Ctenophorus parviceps (STORR, 1964)

Gnaraloo Heath Dragon

GREER, A.E. (1987): Taxonomic and natural history notes on Tympanocryptis butleri and T. parviceps. - West. Aust. Nat., 17 (1): 13-16.

MELVILLE, J., SHOO, L.P. & P. DOUGHTY (2008): Phylogenetic relationships of the heath dragons (Rankinia adelaidensis and R. parviceps) from the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot. - Australian Journal of Zoology, 56 (3): 159-171.

STORR, G.M. (1964): The Agamid lizards of the genus Tympanocryptis in Western Australia. – J. roy. Soc. W. Aust., 47: 43-50.

Ctenophorus pictus PETERS,1866

Painted Grounnd-dragon / Painted Dragon

MAYHEW, W.W. (1963): Observations on captive Amphibolurus pictus an Australian agamid lizard. - Herpetologica, 19 (2): 81-88. (1160)

RUEHLE, R. (1968): The painted dragon. – Wildl. Aust., 5: 40-42.

Ctenophorus reticulatus GRAY, 1845

Western Netted Ground-dragon / Western Netted Dragon

PIANKA, E.R. (2014): Notes on the ecology and natural history of Ctenophorus reticulatus (Agamidae) in Western Australia. – Western Australian Naturalist, 30: 222-225.

Ecological data on the agamid Ctenophorus reticulatus are presented. Active early and late in the day during summer, they thermoregulate actively with an average body temperature of 34.1°C (N=34). These agamid lizards dig their own burrows, which are used as retreats. They are omnivorus dietary generalists eating ants and termites as well as plant materials. Clutch size varies from 3 to 6, averaging 4. Adult males are larger than females.

STORR, G.M. (1966): The Amphibolurus reticulates species group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Proc. Roy. Soc. W.Aust., 49: 17-25.

WHITE, S.R. (1949): Some notes on the netted dragon lizard (Amphibolurus reticulates). – West Aust. Nat. Perth, 1 (8): 157-161.


Ctenophorus rubens (STORR,1965)

Raddening Sand-dragon

STORR, G.M. (1965): The Amphibolurus maculatus species-group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Royal Soc. West. Australia, 48 (2): 45-54.



Ctenophorus rufescens (STIRLING& ZIETZ,1893)

Rusty Crevice-dragon

STIRLING, E.C. & A. ZIETZ (1893): Description of Ctenophorus rufescens. – In: Scientific results of the Elder Exploring Expedition. Vertebrata. Mammalia, Reptilia. - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 16: 154-176.


Ctenophorus salinarum STORR,1966

Saltpan Ground-dragon

STORR, G.M. (1966): The Amphibolurus reticulates species group (Lacertilia, Agamidae) in Western Australia. – J. Proc. Roy. Soc. W.Aust., 49: 17-25.


Ctenophorus scutulatus (STIRLING & ZIETZ, 1893)

Lozenge-marked Bicycle-dragon / Lozenge-Marked Dragon

BOULENGER, G.A. (1904): Description of a new lizard from Western Australia. – Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) 14: 414-415.

PIANKA, E.R. (1971): Notes on the biology of Amphibolurus cristatus and Amphibolurus scutulatus. – West. Aust. Nat., 12: 36-41.

ROSEN, N. (1905): List of the lizards in the Zoological Museum of Lund, with descriptions of new species. – Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) 16: 129-142.

STIRLING, E.C. & A. ZIETZ (1893): Description of Ctenophorus scutulatus – In: Scientific results of the Elder Exploring Expedition. Vertebrata. Mammalia, Reptilia.  - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 16: 154-176.


Ctenophorus slateri (STORR, 1967)


Slater's Dragon

STORR, G.M. (1967): Geographic races of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus caudicinctus. – J. Proc. R. Soc. West. Aust., 50: 49-56.


Ctenophorus spinodomus SADLIER, COLGAN, BEATSON & COGGER, 2019


SADLIER, R.A., COLGAN, D., BEATSON, C.A. & H.G. COGGER (2019): Ctenophorus spinodomus sp. nov., a New Species of Dragon Lizard (Squamata: Agamidae) from Triodia Mallee Habitat of Southeast Australia. – Rec. Aus. Mus., 71 (5): 199-215.

Research into geographic variation in the agamid lizard Ctenophorus fordi supports a pattern of regional lineage diversity identified in earlier genetic studies, and provides new information on differences in morphology diagnostic of these lineages. One of the most genetically divergent and morphologically distinctive of these lineages is that consisting of populations from Triodia Mallee habitat of the red sandplains of inland southeast Australia. Populations from this region are the sister lineage to all other “C. fordi”, a suite of four genetically regionally discrete lineages distributed across the arid inland of southern Australia. They can be distinguished by a unique black “T” shaped chest pattern in adult males which, in combination with certain features of body proportions and scalation, diagnose the lineage from all other “C. fordi”. On the strength of these differences we describe populations belonging to this lineage as a new species, Ctenophorus spinodomus sp. nov. This new species is highly restricted in the habitat it occupies, and its ecology tied to a reliance on the presence of Triodia hummock grass groundcover (spinifex) for shelter, foraging and social interactions. It appears to be most abundant in areas of extensive and healthy Triodia that develop 20–50 years post-burn, and as a consequence too many or too few fires can both have negative impacts on the suitability of hummock grass groundcover for this species. Mallee habitat in southeast Australia is fragmented, and large fires in the smaller isolated areas of habitat could result in loss of suitable habitat for the species, resulting in localized extinction with no opportunity for recruitment. These factors in combination with ongoing loss of habitat place the remaining populations of C. spinodomus sp. nov. at a high level of vulnerability.


Ctenophorus tjantjalka JOHNSTON, 1992


JOHNSTON, G.R. (1992): Ctenophorus tjantjalka, a new dragon lizard (Lacertilia: Agamidae) from northern South Australia. –Records of the South Australian Museum (adelaide), 26 (1): 51-59.


Ctenophorus vadnappa HOUSTON, 1974

Red-barred Crevice-dragon

HOUSTON, T.F. (1974): Revision of the Amphibolurus decresii complex (Lacertilia: Agamidae) of South Australia. – Transactions R. Soc. S. Aust., 98 (2): 49-60.

Ctenophorus yinnietharra STORR,1981

Yinnietharra Crevice-dragon

STORR, G.M. (1981): Three new agamid lizards from Western Australia. – Rec. West. Aust. Mus., 8 (4): 599-607.

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