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Literatur und Schriften

Chlamydosaurus GRAY, 1831

ZOFFER, D. & T. MAZORLIG (1998): Bearded & Frilled Dragons. – T.F.H. Publications, USA. 64 S.

Chlamydosaurus kingii GRAY, 1825

Kragenechse / Frilled Lizard

ANONYM (1958): Frilled Lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingi). – Turtox News, 36: 192.

ARESTÉ, M. & J.L. FARRIOLS (2000): Chlamydosaurus kingii Kragenechse. – Reptilia, Münster, 5 (1): 47-50.

BEDFORD, G.S., CHRISTIAN, K.A. & A.D. GRIFFITHS (1993): Preliminary investigations on the reproduction of the Frillneck Lizard Chlamydosaurus kingii in the Northern Territory. – In: Lunney, D. & D. Ayers (eds.): Herpetology in Australia. – Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. 414 S.

BEDDARD, F.-E. (1905): A contribution to the anatomy of the frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) and some other Agamidae. – Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London, 75 (1): 9-22.

BENDER, E. (1956): Chlamydosaurus in Deutschland. – Die Aquar. Terrar. Z., Stuttgart, 9 (6): 166.

BOGERT, C.M. (1957): The lizard with the frightening frill. – Nat. Hist. N.Y., 66: 98-99.

BOULENGER, G,A. (1895): Remarks on the value of certain cranial characters employed by Prof. Cope for distinguishing lizards from snakes. - Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 16: 366-367.

CHRISTIAN.K.A. & G.S. BEDFORD (1995): Seasonal changes in thermoregulation by the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii, in tropical Australia. – Ecology, 76: 124-132.

CHRISTIAN, K.A. & G.S. BEDFORD (1995): Physiological consequences of filarial parasitres in the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii, in northern Australia. – Canadian Hournal of Zoology, 73 (12): 2302-2306.

CHRISTIAN, K., BEDFORD, G. & A. GRIFFITHS (1995): Frillneck lizard morphology: comparisons between sexes and sites. – Journal of Herpetology, 29 (4): 576-583.

CHRISTIAN, K.A., GRIFFITHS, A.D. & G.S. BEDFORD (1996): Physiological ecology of frillneck lizards in a seasonal tropical environments. – Oecologia, Heidelberg, 106 (1): 49-56.

GRIFFITHS, A.D. & K.A. CHRISTIAN (1996): The effects of fire on the frillneck lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) in northern Australia. – Australian Journal of Ecology, 21 (4): 386-398.

GRAY, J.E. (1826): Reptilia. Appendix. - In: King, P. P. Narrative of a survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia performed between the years 1818 and 1822. London: John Murray 2: 424-434.

GRIFFITHS, A.D. & K.A. CHRISTIAN (1996): Diet and habitat use of frillneck lizards in a seasonal tropical environment. – Oecologia, Heidelberg, 106 (1): 39-48.

GÜNTHER, R. & M. KAPISA (2003): Allochtone Populationen der Kragenechse, Chlamydosaurus kingii GRAY, 1825, und des Papua-Wasserdrachens, Lophognathus temporalis (GÜNTHER, 1867), auf der Insel Biak. – Sauria, Berlin, 25 (2): 31-35. (03.085)

Based on captive specimens released in the early 1990s, successfully reproducing populations of the Frilled Lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii, and of the Papua Water Dragon, Lophognathus temporalis, have established themselves within and near Biak Town and are still present there today. Biak Island is situated in the Pacific Ocean, about 120 km north-west off the north-west coast of New Guinea, at a distance of about 800 km from the northern range limits of both species.

HARCOURT, N. (1986): A review of the Frilled Lizard Chlamydosaurus kingii in captivity. – Thylacinus, 11 (3): 100-104.

HAUSCHILD, A. (1997): Mit Stehkragen und Peitschenschwanz: Kragenechsen. – Reptilia, Münster, 2 (4): 56-60.

HAUSCHILD, A. & H. BOSCH (1997): Bartagamen und Kragenechsen. – Natur und Tier-Verlag. Münster. 95 S.

HÖRENBERG, T. (2004): Ein echter Saurier im Terrarium: Die australische Kragenechse (Chlamydosaurus kingii). – Reptilia, Münster, 9 (6): 68-73.

HOSER, R.T. (2012): Two new subspecies of frill-necked lizards (Squamata: Sauria: Agamidae). - Australasian J. Herpetol., 14: 24–26.

Geographical variants of the Frill-necked Lizard Chlamydosaurus kingii Gray, 1825 have been recognized for many years including within the pet trade in Europe and the USA. In spite of this, there has been no recognition of the various taxonomic units beyond the single described species. Taking a conservative position, this paper reviews the monotypic genus and formally names two new subspecies, namely Chlamydosaurus kingii pughae subsp. nov. from New Guinea and Chlamydosaurus kingi mickpughi from eastern Queensland.

JONES, H. (1994): Gastrointestinal nematodes of the Frillneck Lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii (Agamidae), with particular referenfce to Skrjabinoptera goldmanae (Spirurida, Physalopteridae). - Australian Journal of Zoology, 42 (3): 371-377.

Maxvachonia brygooi, Strongyluris; Paronai, Physalopteroides filicaudo, Abbreviata anomala, A. confuse, Skrjabinoptera goldmanae and unidentified species of Oxyroidea and Trichostrongyloidea were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of the fillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii, from northern Australia. The nematode fauna is similar to that found in Pogona mitchelli (Agamidae). Skrj. goldmanae was the most abundant nematode; adults were attached to the stomach wall with their anterior ends buried within the submucosa. The hosts’ histopathological responses consisted of collagen proliferation with macrophage infiltration, and evidence is presented that worms in the tissues die and are resorbed. Possible explanations for this mode of feeding and for the host reaction are discussed in terms of the annual activity cycle of the lizard host.

KENT, W.S. (1895): Observations on the Frilled Lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingi. - Proc. zool. Soc. London 1895: 712-719.

LONGLEY, G. (1946): Observations on a young frilled lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii. - Proc. R. Zool. Soc. N. S. W. 1945-46: 35-36.

MADSEN, T. (1977): The agama species (Chlamydosaurus kingii). – Nordisk herpet. Foren., 20 (2): 34-35. (in Dänisch)

OLIVER, J.A. (1956): Big bluff from Australia (Chlamydosaurus kingii). – Anim. Kingd., 58: 44-46.

PEPPER, M., HAMILTON, D.G., MERKLING, T., SVEDIN, N., CSER, B., CATULLO, R., PRYKE, S.R., &. J.C. KEOGH (2016): Phylogeographic structure across one of the largest intact tropical savannahs: Molecular and morphological analysis of Australia’s iconic frilled lizard Chlamydosaurus kingii. Molecular - Phylogenetics and Evolution, 106: 217-227.

The spectacular threat display of the savannah specialist Australo-Papuan frilled lizards has made them one of the world’s most iconic reptiles. They are increasingly used as a model system for research in evolutionary biology and ecology but little is known of their population structure. Their distribution across northern Australia and southern New Guinea also provides an opportunity to examine biogeographic patterns as they relate to the large-scale movement of savannah habitat during the Plio/Pleistocene and the associated increase in aridity. We generated sequence data for one mitochondrial and four nuclear DANN loci (5052 base pairs) for 83 frilled lizards sampled throughout their range. We also quantified body proportion variation for 279 individuals. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian species-tree methods revealed three shallow clades that replace each other across the monsoon tropics. We found the expected pattern of male biased sexual size dimorphism in both maximum body size and head size but there was no sexual dimorphism in overall body shape or in frill size, relative to head size, supporting the hypothesis that the frill is used primarily as a threat display rather than a sexual display. The genetic clades are broadly consistent with known clinal variation in frill color that gradually shifts from west to east (red, orange, yellow/white) but otherwise show little morphological differentiation in body proportion measures. The biogeographic breaks between clades occur at the Carpentaria Gap and the lowlands surrounding the Ord River, and our ecological niche modeling predicts lower habitat suitability for C. kingii in these regions. While this biogeographic pattern is consistent with numerous other taxonomic groups in northern Australia, the overall low genetic diversity in frilled lizards across the entire monsoon tropics and southern New Guinea contrasts starkly to patterns seen in other terrestrial vertebrates. Extremely low intra-clade genetic diversity over vast geographic areas is indicative of  recent gene flow that would likely have been facilitated by widespread savannah during interglacials, or alternatively may reflect population bottlenecks induced by extreme aridity during Pleistocene glacials. The shallow divergence between Australian and New Guinean samples is consistent with recent connectivity between Australia and New Guinea that would have been possible via a savannah corridor across the Torres Strait. Based on our molecular and morphological data, we do not support taxonomic recognition of any of the frilled lizard clades and instead consider C. kingii a single species with shallow phylogeographic structure and clinal variation in frill color.

PORTIELJE, A.F.J. (1913): De Kraag-Agame, Chlamydosaurus Kingi Gray, in Artis. – De Levende Natuur, 17 (19): 440-446.

REISINGER, M. (1992): Chlamydosaurus kingii GRAY, 1825, Husbandry and Breeding of the Australian Frilled Lizard. – Sauria (E), kempton Park, 1 (3): 21-23. (03.145)

For the first time the Australian Frilled lizard has been successfully bred in captivity outside Australia. Husbandry conditions are described, diet and feeding intervals are indicated, data on growth and weight-increase are supplied. Within the reporting period three clutches were produced and successfully incubated, for which the parameters are indicated.

REISINGER, M. (1992): Chlamydosaurus kingii GRAY, 1825, Haltung und Nachzucht der Australischen Kragenechse. – Sauria, Berlin, 14 (1): 21-23. (00.679)

For the first time the Australian Frilled lizard has been successfully bred in captivity outside Australia. Husbandry conditions are described, diet and feeding intervals are indicated, data on growth and weight-increase are supplied. Within the reporting period three clutches were produced and successfully incubated, for which the parameters are indicated.

REISINGER, M. (1995): Erfahrungen bei der Haltung und Vermehrung der Kragenechse Chlamydosaurus kingi. – elaphe N.F., Rheinbach, 3 (3): 16-20. (03.146)

Der Nachwuchs, Winterruhe, Paarung und Eiablage, Jungtiere und deren Pflege.

ROGNER, M. (2010): Vom ‚seltenen Exoten‘ zum ‚Anfängertier‘ – die Kragenechse. – Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift, 63 (10): 68-70.

SHAW, C.E. (1956): A dragon with frills. – Zoonooz, 29 (10): 3-4.

SHINE, R. (1990): Function and evolution of the frill of the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii (Sauria: Agamidae). – Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 40: 11-20.

SHINE, R. & R. LAMBECK (1989): Ecology of frillneck lizards, Chlamydosaurus kingii (Agamidae), in tropical Australia. – Aust. Wildl. Res., 16: 491-500.

SWITAK, K.-H. (2009): Die Kragenechse: Ein Mini-Dinosaurier. – Terraria, Münster, 4 (20): 14-15.

TIMMS, B. (1967): The frilled lizard. – Aust. Wild Life, 4: 34-36.

UJVARI, B., DOWTON, M. & T. MADSEN (2007): Mitochondrial DNA recombination in a free-ranging Australian lizard. - Biology Letters, 3: 189-192.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the traditional workhorse for reconstructing evolutionary events. The frequent use of mtDNA in such analyses derives from the apparent simplicity of its inheritance: maternal and lacking bi-parental recombination. However, in hybrid zones, the reproductive barriers are often not completely developed, resulting in the breakdown of male mitochondrial elimination mechanisms, leading to leakage of paternal mitochondria and transient heteroplasmy, resulting in an increased possibility of recombination. Despite the widespread occurrence of heteroplasmy and the presence of the molecular machinery necessary for recombination, we know of no documented example of recombination of mtDNA in any terrestrial wild vertebrate population. By sequencing the entire mitochondrial genome (16 761 bp), we present evidence for mitochondrial recombination in the hybrid zone of two mitochondrial haplotypes in the Australian frillneck lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii).

UJVARI, B., DOWTON, M. & T. MADSEN (2008): Population genetic structure, gene flow and sex-biased dispersal in frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus kingii). - Molecular Ecology, 17: 3557–3564.

By using both mitochondrial and nuclear multiloci markers, we explored population genetic structure, gene flow and sex-specific dispersal of frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus kingii) sampled at three locations, separated by 10 to 50 km, in a homogenous savannah woodland in tropical Australia. Apart from a recombinant lizard, the mitochondrial analyses revealed two nonoverlapping haplotypes/populations, while the nuclear markers showed that the frillneck lizards represented three separate clusters/populations. Due to the small population size of the mtDNA, fixation may occur via founder effects and/or drift. We therefore suggest that either of these two processes, or a combination of the two, are the most likely causes of the discordant results obtained from the mitochondrial and the nuclear markers. In contrast to the nonoverlapping mitochondrial haplotypes, in 12 out of 74 lizards, mixed nuclear genotypes were observed, hence revealing a limited nuclear gene flow. Although gene flow should ultimately result in a blending of the populations, we propose that the distinct nuclear population structure is maintained by frequent fires resulting in local bottlenecks, and concomitant spatial separation of the frillneck lizard populations. Limited mark–recapture data and the difference in distribution of the mitochondrial and nuclear markers suggest that the mixed nuclear genotypes were caused by juvenile male-biased dispersal.

WEIS, P.R. (1996): Husbandary and breeding of the Frilled Lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii). – In: Strimple, P.D. (ed.): Advances in Herpetoculture. Special publications of the Herpetological Symp., Inc. Number 1. Crown Craft Printing, Des Moines. 87-92.

WERMUTH, H. (1959): Die Kragenechse, Chlamydosaurus kingii Gray. – Aquar. Terrar., Leipzig, 6 (4): 108. (03.147)

WILHELMA TERRARIUM (1999): Jurassic Park in der Wilhelma? – Die Aquar. Terrar. Z., Stuttgart, 52 (3): 7. (03.148)

ZWINENBERG, A.J. (?): Australische reptielen III. De kraaghagedis (Chlamydosaurus kingii). – Lacerta, 2 S. (03.149)

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