Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Agamen stellt sich vor
DGHT-AG Agamen

Literatur und Schriften


Agama DAUDIN, 1802

Agamen

ANANJEVA, N.B. (1980): Besonderheiten im Bau des Schädel, Gebisses und Zungenbeins der in der UdSSR vorkommenden Agamen (Lacertilia, Agamidae: Agama). – Mitteilungen des zoologischen Museums Berlin, 56 (2): 295-308.

ANANJEVA, N.B. (1981): Structural characteristics of skull, dentition and hyoid of lizards of the genus Agama from the fauna of the USSR. – Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, 101: 3-20.

ANANJEVA, N.B. & B.S. TUNIYEV (1994): Some aspects of historical biogeography of Asian rock agamids. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 1 (1): 42-52.

ANDERSON, J. (1894): On two new species of agamoid lizards from the Hadramut, south-eastern Arabia. – Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 6, 14: 376-378.

BAIG, K.J. (1988): A unusual tail regeneration in Agama. – Pakistan Journal of Science Ind. Res., 31 (10): 731-732.

BARABANOV, A. (2008): A case of hormonymy in the ngenus Agama (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 15: 206.

CAWKELL, E.M. (1957): Agama lizard catching Senegal Fire-Finch. – Ibis, 99: 686.

CHABANAUD, M.P. (1917): Etude complémentaire de deux Agama de l´Afrique occidentale et description de quatre espèces nouvelles de reptiles de la meme region. – Bull. Mus. Hist. nat., Paris, 24 (2): 104-112.

DAAN, S. (1971): Agamen. – In: Grzimek, B. (Hrsg.): Grzimeks Tierleben, Bd. 6, Kriechtiere. Dtv, München. 207-229.

GONÇALVES, D.V., BRITO, J.C., CROCHET, P.A., GENIEZ, P., PADIAL, J.M. & D.J. HARRIS (2012): Phylogeny of North African Agama lizards (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the role of the Sahara desert in vertebrate seciation. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64 (3): 582-591.

The origin of Saharan biodiversity is poorly understood, in part because the geological and paleoclimatic events that presumably shaped species diversity are still controversial, but also because few studies have explored causal explanations for the origin of Saharan diversity using a phylogenetic framework. Here, we use mtDNA (16S and ND4 genes) and nDNA (MC1R and CMOS genes) to infer the relationships and biogeographic history of North African agamas (genus Agama). Agamas are conspicuous, diverse and abundant African lizards that also occur in the Saharan xeric and mesic environments. Our results revealed the presence of three Agama lineages in North Africa: one Afrotropical, one Sahelo-Saharan, and one broadly distributed in North Africa and mainly Saharan. Southern Mauritania contains the highest known diversity, with all three lineages present. Results suggest that agamas colonized the Sahara twice, but only one lineage was able to radiate and diversify there. Species in the Saharan lineage are mostly allopatric, and their splitting, genetic diversity and distribution are greatly explained by mountain ranges. One species in this lineage has colonized the Mediterranean climatic zone (A. impalearis), and another one the Sahel savannah (A. boueti). The other lineage to colonize the Sahara corresponds to A. boulengeri, an eminently Sahelian species that also inhabits Saharan mountain ranges in Mauritania and Mali. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that allopatric montane populations within some currently recognized species are also genetically divergent. Our study therefore concludes that vicariant speciation is a leading motor of species diversification in the area: Inside the Sahara, associated to mountain-ranges isolated by dune seas and bare plains; outside, associated to less harsh climates to the North and South. Paleoclimatic oscillations are suggested as causal explanations of the vicariant distribution and origin of species. Agamas are thought to have colonized northern Africa during wet periods, with subsequent dry periods fragmenting species distribution and leading to allopatric populations associated to milder and wetter climates in the Mediterranean, Sahel, and in Saharan mountains, in an island-model fashion. Finally, our results support the synonymization of A. castroviejoi with A. boueti, the reciprocal monophyly of all other North African agamas, and suggest one candidate species within A. boulengeri.

GRANDISON, A.G.C. (1968): Nigerian lizards of the genus Agama (Sauria: Agamidae). – Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 17: 65-90.

HARDY, C.J. & C.M. HARDY (1977): Tail regeneration and other observations in a species of agamid lizard. – Australian Zool., 19 (2): 141-148.

HARLOW, P. (1994): Life history attributes of an agamid lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. –Second World Congress of Herpetology, Abstracts: 111.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1993): Does crypsis reduce predation pressure in agama lizards? Evidence from tail damage. – Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 14: 195-197. (00.345)

Agama aculeata aculeata, Agama planiceps planiceps.

HENLE, K. (1995): A brief review of the origin and use of ‘stellio’ in herpetology and a comment on the nomenclature and taxonomy of agamids of the genus Agama (sensu lato). – Herpetozoa, Wien, 8 (1/2): 3-9.

IZHAKI, I. & A. HAIM (1996): Adaptive morphometric variation in lizards of the genus Agama in Israel. – Israel Journal of Zoology, 42 (4): 385-394.

JOGER, U. (1979): Zur Ökologie und Verbreitung wenig bekannter Agamen Westafrikas (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main) 15 (1): 31-52. (00.609)

Zusammenfassung:
Die noch sehr ungenügenden ökologischen und zoogeographischen Kenntnisse über die Agamen der westafrikanischen Savanne soll diese Studie erweitern helfen. Die vier hier behandelten Arten erweisen sich in bezug auf ihren bevorzugten Biotop als stenök und allotop. Sie weichen der zwischenartlichen Konkurrenz durch ökologische Sonderung aus.
Agama boueti bestätigt sich durch den Neunachweis aus der Republik Niger als Bewohner sandiger Flächen zwischen dem Südrand der Sahara und dem Übergangsgebiet Sahel-/Sudan-Savanne. Die südlich daran anschließenden offenen Landschaften werden von A. sankaranica bewohnt. Die myrmecophage Zwergform A. weidholzi löst A. sankaranica auf dem laubbedeckten Boden der Trockenwälder zwischen dem Oberlauf des Niger und der Casamance ab. Agama boulengeri ist ein Endemit der variskischen Faltungsgebiete zwischen dem mauretanischen Adrar und dem oberen Senegal, wo die Art sich nur auf trockenheißen Felsplateaus gegen die ähnlich eingenischte A. agama behaupten kann.
Die beobachtete Aufnahme sukkulenter Pflanzenteile durch A. boulengeri und A. boueti wird als Anpassung an das Leben in Trockenbiotopen gedeutet, was durch die Tatsache gestützt wird, daß A. boueti im feuchten Küstengebiet keine Pflanzennahrung aufnimmt.
Die bodenlebenden Arten sind solitär, A. boulengeri zeigt Ansätze zu sozialer Gruppenbildung.
Die Fortpflanzung scheint bei allen Arten in der Regenzeit zu erfolgen, doch fehlen exakte Belege.
Zahlreiche Probleme harren noch ihrer Lösung, so zum Beispiel bei A. weidholzi die Bedeutung der auffälligen Farbmale und das augenscheinliche Fehlen von Adulten in der Trockenzeit.

JOGER, U. (1991): A molecular phylogeny of agamid lizards. – Copeia, 1991: 616-622.

JOGER, U. & B. ARANO (1987): Biochemical phylogeny of the Agama genus group. – In: Van Gelder, Stzrijbosch & Berger (eds.): Proceedings of the 4th Ord. General Meeting Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Nijmegen. 215-218.

KLOSSOVSKY, B.N. & E.G. BALASHOV (1961): On different constructions of circulatory system of Agama brain. – Zool. Zh., 40: 251-257.

LEACH, A.D., CHONG, R.A., PAPENFUSS, T.J., WAGNER, P., BÖHME, W., SCHMITZ, A., RÖDEL, M.-O., LEBRETON, M., INEICH, I., CHIRIO, L., BAUER, A., ENIANG, E.A. & S. BAHA EL DIN (2009): Phylogeny of the genus Agama based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 273-278.

MEDIANNIKOV, O., TRAPE, S. & J.F. TRAPE (2012): A molecular study of the genus Agama (Squamata: Agamidae) in Wesdt Africa, with description of two new species and a review of the taxonomy, geographic and ecology of currently recognized species. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 19 (2): 115-142.

 We conducted field studies in 15 West African countries and collected one thousand specimens of lizards of the genus Agama. Based on these collections, literature, molecular analysis of selected specimens, and examination of Linnean type-specimens of A. agama, we review the phylogeny, taxonomy, geographic distribution and ecology of the West African species of the genus Agama. Seventeen different species are recognized in the genus Agama in West Africa, northern Cameroon and Chad: A. africana, A. agama, A. boensis, A. boueti, A. boulengeri, A. castroviejoi, A. cristata, A. doriae benueensis, A. gracilimembris, A. insularis, A. lebretoni, A. paragama, A. sankaranica, A. weidholzi, and three new species. We design a lectotype for A. agama (Linnaeus, 1758) and attribute to A. wagneri, sp. nov., the populations from northern and central Cameroon of the A. agama complex. Agama parafricana, sp. nov., is described from wet savannah areas of Togo and Benin. Agama sylvanus from southern Ghana is a junior synonym of A. africana. Agama cf impalearis from northern Niger and Mali corresponds to an undescribed species. Agama boensis is resurrected from the synonymy of A. sankaranica. According to biogeographic areas, four species are Sahelian, seven species are Sudanian, four species are Guinean, and two species are ubiquitous.

MOODY, M.S. (1982): Phylogenetic origins and relationships of terrestrial genera Agama, Phrynocephalus, and Uromastyx within the family Agamidae (Reptilia: Sauria). – Vertebrata Hungarica, Musei historico-naturalis hungarici, Budapest. 252.

PETERS, G. (1971): Die Wirtelschwänze Zentralasiens (Agamidae: Agama). Ergebnisse der Mongolisch-Deutschen Biologischen Expeditionen seit 1962, Nr. 59. –Mitt. zool. Mus Berlin, 47: 357-381.

REID, E.T.M. (1954): Agama species eating scorpions. – Brit. J. Herpet., 1 (11): 226.

SIMBOTWE, M.P. & S.D. GARBER (1979): Feeding habits of lizards in the genera Mabuya, Agama, Ichnotropis and Lygodactylus in Zambia, Africa. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 82: 55-59.

SODEINDE, O.A. & O.A. KUKU (1989): Aspects of the morphometry, growth related parameters and reproductive condition of Agama lizards in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. – Herpetological Journal, 1: 386-392. (00.346)

Immature, adult males and females of the lizard, Agama agama (L.) collected at Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria during the second and third quarters of 1987, differed most in snout-vent lengths (SVL). They averaged 59 ± 3 mm, 125 ± 2 mm and 104 ± 3 mm SVL respectively and also differed in dimensions and weights of other body structures. These structures, including scales, eyes, tail and hind limb, correlated well with SVL and grow allometrically in relation to it. They can therefore be used to separate Agama agama into age-sex classes. Females are capable of breeding at 91 mm SVL and those in breeding condition differed from non-reproductive members in weights and dimensions of gonadal structures (P<0.001) but not SVL and body weight (P>0.10). Males in reproductive condition differed from non-reproductive ones in SVL, body weight and reproductive parameters (P<0.001).

SOKOLOVSKY, V.V., (1975): Comparative and karyologic study of the lizards in the family Agamidae. 2. Karyotypes of five species of the genus Agama. – Tsitologiya, Leningrad, 17 (1): 91-93. (in Russisch)

SPAUL, E.A. (1923): Nematodes of the genus Strongyluris from Agama. – Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9), 12: 149-154.

SUHR, E. (1972): Terrarienbeobachtungen an Agama und Eremias. – Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig, 19 (11): 388.


Agama aculeata MERREM, 1820

Ground Agama

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (2002): A comparison of the breeding and non-breeding season diet of Agama aculeata and Agama planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) in Windhoek, Namibia. - Journal of Herpetology, 36 (3): 515-520.

MERREM, B. (1820): Description of Agama aculeata. – In: “Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum)”. J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp.


Agama aculeata aculeata MERREM, 1820

Ground Agama

BATES, M.F. (1995): Agama aculeata aculeata Western Ground Agama. Size and reproduction. – Afr. Herp News, 22: 43-44.

BILLAWER, W.H. & N.J.L. HEIDEMAN (1996): A comparative analysis of diurnal behavioural activities in males of Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps in Windhoek, Namibia. – Journ. Herpet. Ass. Afr., 45 (2): 68-73.

HAAGNER, G.V. (1995): Agama aculeata aculeata Western. Ground Agama. Avian predation. – Afr. Herp News, 22: 44.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1990): Life History Note: Agama aculeata aculeata: Reproduction. – Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr., 37: 50..

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1992): Comparative reproductive biology, and aspects of behaviour and ecology of Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) in the Windhoek area. – Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stellenbosch.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1993): Social organization and behaviour of Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) during the breeding season. – J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 42: 28-31.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1994): Reproduction in Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps females from Windhoek, Namibia. – Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 15: 351-361. (00.353)

Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps females were reproductively active during summer, which is the rainy season in Namibia. Both species were iteroparous; clutch size and relative clutch mass in the smaller A. a. aculeata were significantly larger than in A. p. planiceps. Egg and newborn hatchling size of A. a. planiceps on the other hand were significantly greater than in A. a. aculeata. It is suggested that these differences may have evolved as a result of different strategies which the two species possibly employ to cope with predation pressure, namely, evasion through crypsis in A. a. aculeata and through speed of escape in A. p. planiceps.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1995): Is Agama planiceps planiceps better adapted for high running speed and agility than Agama aculeata aculeata? Inferences from their morphology. – Cimbebasia, 14: 17-21.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1995): The relationship between reproduction, and abdominal fat body and liver condition in Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) males in Windhoek, Namibia. – Journal of Arid Environments, 31 (1): 105-113.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1995): Nematode incidence in Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps in the Windhoek area, Namibia. – Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa, 44 (1): 22-23.


Agama aculeata distanti (BOULENGER, 1902)

Ground Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. (1902): A new name for the Common Agama of the Transvaal. - Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9: 339-339.

STRÜBING, H. (1966): Einige Beobachtungen zumVerhalten von Agama hispida distanti Boulenger in Gefangenschaft. – Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin N.F., 6: 108-125.


Agama agama LINNAEUS, 1758

Siedleragame / Rainbow Lizard / Common Agama

AKANI, G.C., PETROZZI, F., RUGIERO, L., SEGNIAGBETO, G.H. & L. LUISELLI (2013): Effects of rainfall and geography on the comparative diets of eight rainbow lizard populations across Togo, benin and Nigeria (West Africa). – Amphibia-Reptilia, 34 (2): 185-192.

The diet composition of rainbow lizards (Agama agama complex) populations was studied by feces analysis at eight distant places across a mega-transect in the Gulf of Guinea (West Africa), covering three countries: Togo, Benin and Nigeria. The effects of geography (= linear distance between study sites) and local conditions (using the mean annual rainfall as a proxy of the site-specific conditions) on dietary similarity of rainbow lizards were tested. Rainbow lizards were mainly insectivorous at all sites. Multivariate analyses identified four main groups of localities in terms of diet diversity indexes, with populations inhabiting forest towns tending to have less prey taxa richness than conspecifics from more arid areas, which instead had higher dietary evenness. Food niche overlap between populations was high among populations (range 0.631-0.940, x = 0 . 839 ), and decreased with increases in the difference of mean annual rainfall between sites. There was no effect of the geographic distance on the similarity in diet composition between populations. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed a geographic trend in terms of presence/absence of the various prey types in the diets, with all the Nigerian study sites forming one cluster, whereas Lomé and Cotonou, two cities situated within the Dahomey Gap, being grouped apart. Overall, rainfall of the various sites seems to be more important than geographic distance for determining the taxonomic diet composition similarity of these lizards.

ANIBALDI, C., LUISELLI, L. & F. ANGELICI (1998): Notes on the ecology of a suburban population of rainbow lizards in coastal Kenya. – African J. Ecol., 36: 199-206.

BABERO, B.B. & I. OKPALA (1962): Parasites of the lizard, Agama colonarum in Nigeria, with a description of a new species. – Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc., 81: 228-234.

BEIER, U. (1974): Observations on the rainbow lizard. – Niger Fld., 39: 137-140.

BÖHME, W. (2005): Agama agama (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-headed Rock Agama. Nocturnal activity. – Afr. Herp News, 38: 20-21.

BREITFELD, M. (?): Kurze Bemerkungen zur Nahrung der Siedleragame. – Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift, Stuttgart. 754. (00.356)

BRINGSØE, H. (1994): Live observations and egg laying of the lizard, Agama agama, in Nigeria. – Nordisk Herpetologisk Forening, 37 (5): 85-91. (in Dänisch)

CHAPMAN,B.M. & R.F. CHAPMAN (1964): Observations onthe biology of the lizard Agama agama in Ghana. – Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 143: 121-132.

CHARNIER, M. (1963): Action de l´hormone male (hexahydrobenzoate de testosterone) sur les femelles d´Agama agama, Saurien. Agamidae. – C. r. Séanc. Soc. Biol., Paris, 157: 1470-1472.

CHARNIER, M. (1966): Action d´une hormone femelle sur le tractus genital des males adultes du lizard Agama agama (Lacertilian, Agamidae). – C. r. Séanc. Soc. Biol., 159: 1822-1825.

CHARNIER, M. (1966): Action de la température sur la sex-ratio chez l´embryon d´Agama agama (Agamidae, Lacertilien). – C. r. Séanc. Soc. Biol., 160: 620-622.

CHARNIER, M. (1967): Le dévelopment embryonnaire de l´appareil genital du lizard Agama agama. – Annls Fac. Sci.Univ. Dakar, 20: 23-32.

CLERC, M. (1973): Hormonodépendance de l´utilisation digestiv du 3-3´ dihydroxy-alpha carotène chez Agama agama (L.). – Comptes r. Séanc. Soc. Biol., 167 (5): 702-705.

CLERC, M., ANDRÉ, D. & M. BARBIER (1970): Identification des pigments de la peau de Lézard Agama agama (L.). – C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris, 270D : 725-727.

CLERC, M. & R. LOUBIÉRE (1976): Hypothèses endocrinologiques sur la charge pigmentaire des zanthophores dermiques de “Agama agama” (L.). – Mémoires Soc. Sci. phys. Nat. Bordeaux 1975-1976: 21.COBORN, J. (1975): Post-mortem removal and artificial incubation of rainbow lizard eggs. –Int. Zoo Yearbook, 15: 92-94.

COBORN, J. (1975): Post-mortem removal and artificial incubation of rainbow lizard eggs. –Int. Zoo Yearbook, 15: 92-94.

DATHE, F. (1986): Agama agama (Linne, 1759) Siedleragame. – Aquarien Terrarien, Leipzig, 33 (2): 72. (00.357)

DELSINNE, T., PAUWELS, O.S.G., VANDE WEGHE, J.P. & Y. BRAET (2015): Predation on Dorylus army ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae) by Agama agama (Squamata: Agamidae) in Gabon. - Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie/Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie, 151: 147-149.

We report the first documented observations of predation on Dorylus (Anomma) congolensis Santschi, 1910 by the agamid lizard Agama agama (Linnaeus, 1758), the only reptile known to predate on this aggressive army ant. We also report two other observations of predation by Gabonese Agama agama on Dorylus sp. These observations confirm the extreme dietary adaptability of Agama agama.

DEMEKE, Y. (1997): Notes on breeding, tail growth and other aspects of the biology of the Red-Headed Agama, Agama agama (Sauria: Agamidae) in Mago National Park, Ethiopia. – Bull. Brit. Herp. Soc., (58): 19-25.

DÜCKER, G. & B. RENSCH (1973): Die visuelle Lernkapazität von Lacerta viridis und Agama agama. – Zeitschrift Tierpsychol., 30 (2): 209-214.

EJERE, V.C. & J.A. ADEGOKE (2005): Seasonal testicular histology and reproductive cycle of the rainbow lizard, Agama agama agama, L, (Agamidae, Reptilia) in Ile-ife, south western Nigeria. – Anim. Res. Int., 2 (3): 393-398.

Seasonal histological features of the testis and epididymis were studied in male A. agama agama rom July l990 to June, 1992 at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Tests weights showed no signicant diference (P> 0.05) in the dry and rainy seasons, but were generally low from August to January. Whereas seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelia heights showed no seasonal variation (p > 0.05), the epididymal tubule diameter and epithelia heights varied seasonally (P < 0001). Although males in full breeding condition were caught all through the months, such were more prevalent from April toJuly. Females with eggs or enlarged ovarian follicles were caught all through the study period. Cases of multiple clutches were predominant fromFebruary to July. However vitellogenc activitiesdecreased from August to January thus coinciding with the observed decrease in spermatogenic activity in the male. We propose that individual male Agama lizards maintain peculiar breeding patterns and that reproduction in Agama seems to be influenced by food availability as well as microclimatic conditions at oviposition sites.

EKUNDAYO, C.A. & L.A.O. OTUSANYA (1969): Population estimation of the agama lizard at the Lagos University campus. – Niger Fld., 34: 83-90.

EYESON, K.N. (1970): Cell types in the distal lobe of the pituitary of the West African rainbow lizard, Agama agama (L.). – Gen. comp. Endocr., 14: 357-367.

EYESON, K.N. (1970): The role of the thyroid in reproduction of the West African lizard, Agama agama. – Gen. comp. Endocr., 15: 1-5.

EYESON, K.N. (1971): Pituitary control of ovarian activity in the lizard, Agama agama. – J. Zool., London, 165: 367-372.

EYESON, K.N. (1971): The role of the pituitary gland in testicular function in the lizard Agama agama. – Gen. comp. Endocr., 16: 342-355.

GILPIN, H.G.B. (1970): Agama agama. – Aquar. Pondkpr., 34: 375-376.

GRAMENTZ, D. (1999): Zur Ökologie und Ethologie von Agama agama (LINNAEUS, 1758) in Lambaréné, Gabun. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 35 (4): 193-208. (03.102)

Zusammenfassung:
Das Verhältnis männlicher zu weiblichen Siedleragamen an Bäumen liegt bei Lambaréné bei 1:2. Die durchschnittliche Sitzhöhe am Baumstamm beträgt bei den Männchen 103,9 cm und bei den Weibchen 98,8 cm.
Stammdurchmesser in Sitzhöhe, Sitzhöhe über dem Boden und Sitzhöhe über der nächsten Bodenvegtation sind zwischen Weibchen und Männchen nicht statistisch signifikant verschieden. Die Männchen fressen nicht nur Insekten, sondern auch Hemidactylus brookii. Die Fortpflanzung wurde in den Monaten März und April beobachtet. Die durchschnittliche Körpertemperatur der Männchen betrug 35,4°C und die der Weibchen 32,9°C. Das Defensivverhalten umfaßt die Komponenten Flucht, seitliches Körperschleudern, Sperren, Kot- oder Urinabgabe, Beißen und Inaktivität mit plötzlicher Flucht, wobei die Jungtiere ein weniger umfangreiches Defensivverhaltensrepertoire besitzen als die adulten Echsen. Während territorialer Kämpfe nehmen die Männchen in Lambaréné keine entgegengesetzte parallele Körperorientierung ein, sondern sind in die gleiche Richtung orientiert. Ein Schwanzverletzung wurde bei 44,4 % der adulten Siedleragamen gefunden, wobei die Verletzungsrate bei den Männchen mit 58,3 % höher lag als bei den Weibchen mit 37,5 %.

GRAMENTZ, D. (2004): Agama agama (LINNAEUS, 1758) frisst Blütenblätter. – Sauria, Berlin, 26 (1): 45-46.

Abstract:
On two occasions adult A. agama females were observed feeding on the flowers of a Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. The flowers were accessed from the trunk of an immediately adjacent coconut palm (Lomé, Togo, 29.Sept. 03, 11:15 h; 30. Sept., 10:15 h). In both cases the lizards bit off 2/3 of all five pink-coloured petals within several minutes. The pistils were left alone in either incident. In the first case the flower was widely open, in the second it was just about to open.

GRUBERMANN, M.(2013): Einige fotografische Beobachtungen an Agamen in Kenia, Tansania, Malawi, Südafrika und Namibia. – Iguana, 26 (1): 23-33.

GUILLERMET, C., COUTEYEN, S. & J.-M. PROBST (1998): Une nouvelle espèce de reptile naturalisée à La Réunion, l’Agame des colons Agama agama (Linnaeus). – Bulletin Phaeton, 8: 67-69.

GUPTA, J.C. (1982): Evaluation of Agama agama (Squamata, Agamidae) as a natural control agent of insect pests. – Z. ang. Ent., 93: 397-402.

HALSTEAD, L.B. (1970): Some observations of the rainbow lizard, Agama agama (L.), at the University of Ife. – Niger. Fld., 35: 86-89.

HARRIS, V.A. (1963): The anatomy of the rainbow lizard Agama agama (L.). With a glossary of anatomical terms. – Hutchinson tropüical monographs (Anchor Press Ltd.). pp. 104

HARRIS, V.A. (1964): The Life of the Rainbow Lizard. – London (Hutchinson Tropical Monograph). 174 S.

HENNIG, A.S. (2003): Freilandbeobachtungen an Siedleragamen in Kenia. – Reptilia, Münster, 8 (4): 55-57.

HENNIG, A.S. (2006): Freilandbeobachtungen an Siedleragamen (Agama agama) und Nilwaranen (Varanus niloticus) in Seneal, Westafrika. – Reptilia, Münster, 11 (5): 3-5.

INOUÉ, S. & Z. INOUÉ (1977): Colour changes induced by pairing and painting in the male rainbow lizard, Agama agama agama. – Experientia, Basel, 33: 1443-1444.

LINNAEUS, C. (1758): Description of Agama agama. – In: “ Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis”. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp.

LOWES, R.H.G. (1954): The Rainbow Lizard of West Africa. – Zoo Life, 9: 27-28.

LUISELLI, L., AKANI, G.C., EBERE, N. & V. PÉREZ-MELLADO (2011): Stomach flushing affects survival / emigration in wild lizards: a study case with rainbow lizards (Agama agama) in Nigeria. – Amphibia-Reptilia, 32 (2): 253-260.

Stomach flushing is one of the proposed techniques to study lizard diets. Apparently, it is ranged, together with direct observation and faecal analysis, as a non-harmful method for dietary studies. Some works explored the usefullness of stomach flushing, but we lack information about its effect on lizard's survival probabilities. In this paper we studied the effect of stomach flushing in an urban population of the rainbow lizard (Agama agama) from Calabar (Nigeria). During a period of five months of 2010, 147 lizards were noosed, sexed and individually marked. One group of lizards was stomach flushed only once, whereas the rest of lizards were not flushed. The flushed sample of lizards showed a lower survival than non-flushed lizards of all sex and age classes. In this study, the pictured diet from stomach flushing was very similar to results obtained with a faecal analysis of the same lizard population. Thus, both methods seem to be reliable to study the diet of the rainbow lizard. However, our results indicate that stomach flushing increases the probability of mortality (or at least emigration rates) in all age and sex classes, precluding its extensive use as a method to study lizard's diets.

MADSEN, T. & J. LOMAN (1987): On the role of colour display in the social and spatial organization of male Rainbow lizards (Agama agama). – Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 8: 365-372. (02.254)

Abstract:
A population of rainbow lizards (Agama agama) was studied in central Kenya. Rainbow lizards are able to rapidly change their colours. Dominant territorial males usually exhibited intensive bright colours. Dominant males were less intensively coloured when close to their territory border than in its center. Dominant males tolerated subordinate adult males in their territories. The colours of subordinate adult males were less intensive when these males were close to dominant males than when far from them. We interpret our findings in light of theories of sexual selection.

MARSHALL, A.J. & R. HOOKS (1960): The breeding biology of equatorial vertebrates: reproduction of the lizard Agama agama Boulenger at Lat 0°01’ N. – Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 134: 197-205.

MEDIANNIKOV, O., TRAPE, S. & J. TRAPE (2012): A molecular study of the genus Agama (Squamata: Agamidae) in West Africa,with description of two new species and a review of the taxonomy, geographic distribution and ecology of currently recognized species. - Russian Journal of Herpetology, 19: 115-142.

We conducted field studies in 15 West African countries and collected one thousand specimens of lizards of the genus Agama. Based on these collections, literature, molecular analysis of selected specimens, and examination of Linnean type-specimens of A. agama, we review the phylogeny, taxonomy, geographic distribution and ecology of the West African species of the genus Agama. Seventeen different species are recognized in the genus Agama in West Africa, northern Cameroon and Chad: A. africana, A. agama, A. boensis, A. boueti, A. boulengeri, A. castroviejoi, A. cristata, A. doriae benueensis, A. gracilimembris, A. insularis, A. lebretoni, A. paragama, A. sankaranica, A. weidholzi, and three new species. We design a lectotype for A. agama (Linnaeus, 1758) and attribute to A. wagneri, sp. nov., the populations from northern and central Cameroon of the A. agama complex. Agama parafricana, sp. nov., is described from wet savanna areas of Togo and Benin. Agama sylvanus from southern Ghana is a junior synonym of A. africana. Agama cf. impalearis from northern Niger and Mali corresponds to an nondescribed species. Agama boensis is resurrected from the synonymy of A. sankaranica. According to biogeographic areas, four species are Sahelian, seven species are Sudanian, four species are Guinean, and two species are ubiquitous.

MEIßNER, M. (1991): Siedleragamen. – Die Aquar. Terrar. Z., Stuttgart, 44 (2): 96-97.

NOTTIDGE, H.O. & K.A. AKO-NAI (1992): Rabies virus antibodies survey in lizards (Agama agama). – Tropical Veterinarian, 10 (3-4): 127-129.

OBIAMIWE, B.A., OHAGI, I.E. & U.S. UGBOMOIKO (1995): Morphology and cytology study of Foleyella agamae complex (Nematoda: Filarinae) infecting the agamid lizard Agama agama in Nigeria. – Parasitology Research, 81 (6): 527-530.

PAUWELS, O.S.G., BURGER, M., GUIMONDOU, S. & W.R. BRANCH (2004): Agama agama (Linnaeus, 1758). Nocturnal activity. – Afr. Herp News, 37: 20-21.

PROBST, J.-M. (1999): Nouvelles observations sur le comportement et les colorations variables de l’Agame des colons Agama agama (Linnaeus). - Bulletin Phaethon, 9: 11-12.

RAUH, J. & T. GAUBIES (2003): Erfahrungen und Schwierigkeiten bei der Pflege und “Nachzucht” der Siedleragame (Agama agama). – Reptilia, Münster, 8 (5): 62-66.

SCHALL, J.J. & C.R. BROMWICH (1994): Interspecific interactions tested: two species of malarial parasite in a West African lizard. – Oecologia, 97: 326-332.

SCHALL, J.J., BROMWICH, C.R., WERNER, Y.L. & J. MIDLEGE (1989): Clubbed regenerated tails in Agama agama and their possible use in social interaction. – Journal of Herpetology, 23: 303-305.

SIDEINDE, O. (1992): Nesting behaviour and perinatal biology of the rainbow lizard Agama agama (L.) in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun state. – Niger. Fld., 57: 55-60.

SMOLENSKY, N.L. & T.J. HIBBITTS (2011): Agama agama agama (Linnaeus, 1758) Rainbow Lizard. Diet. – Afr. Herp News, (53): 50-51.

SODEINDE, O.A. & A.A. OGUNJOBI (1994): Hematological values of the Rainbow Lizards (Agama agama). – Jerpetological Journal, London, 4: 86-90.

STIGLER, R. (1950): Versuche über das Parietalauge von Agama colonorum. – Zool. Anz., 145: 316-318.

STOLK, A. (1959): Mijn ervaringen met de Agaam. – Lacerta, 17 (11/12): 69-72.

THEOBALD, K. & J. SCHOLDEI (2011): Regenzeit im Allwetterzoo – Haltung und Nachzucht von Siedleragamen. – Reptilia, Münster, 16 (5): 58-62.

THEOBALD, K. & J. SCHOLDEI (2012): Ergänzende Daten. – Reptilia, Münster, 17 (1): 6.

THOMAS, J.D. (1963): A preliminary account of the life cycle of Mesocoelium monody Dollfus, 1929, a trematode parasite of Agama agama (L.) in West Africa. – J. W. Afr. Sci. Ass., 8: 41-43.

TOFOHR, O. (1907): Die Siedler-Agame. - Blätter für Aquarien und Terrarien-Kunde, 18 (23): 225-227, (24): 237-238.

VASCONCELOS, R., ROCHA, S., BRITO, J.C., CARRANZA, S. & D.J. HARRIS (2009): First record of introduced African Rainbow Lizard Agama agama (LINNAEUS, 1758) in the Cape Verde Islands. – Herpetozoa, Wien, 21 (3/4): 183-186.

WAGNER, P. (2006): Agamen als Klimakonstrukteure. – Terraria, Münster, 2 (1): 44.

WAGNER, P., GLAW, F., GLAW, K. & W. BÖHME (2009): Studies on African Agama IV: First record of Agama agama (Sauria: Agamidae) from Madagascar and identity of the alien population on Grande Comore Island. – Herpetology Notes, 2: 73-77. 9507
Invasions of allochthonous species are encouraged through international traffic and trade. Here we present first distribution records of the highly invasive species Agama agama for Madagascar and discuss its identity and introduction on the island Grande Comore.

WAGNER, P., WILMS, T.M., BAUER, A. & W. BÖHME (2009): Studies on Afrian Agama V. On the origin of Laerta agama Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae). – Bonner zoologishe Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 215-223.

Abstract:
Herin we present our strategy to preserve tzhe nomenclatural stability of the widespread and common Afrotropical lizard Agama agama (Linnaeus, 1758). We recognized several proposed syntypes, belonging to a variety of species, i.e. Agama agama, Agama atra and Tropidurus plica. But we have shown that these specimens do not belong to the type material. However, if they were included in tne type material the selection of the e.g. American syntype, Tropidurus plica – a tropidurine iguanid, as lectotype would result in taxonomic chaos, as Agama agama is an African species and includes in its synonymy the type species of the type genus of the family Agamidae. The illustrated types in SEBA (1734) are recognized by us as a variety of agamid lizards with a type locality encompassing the New and the Old World and not simply ‘America’, as given by LINNAEUS.
Morphologically, Agama agama is highly variable making it impossible to assign the syntype that agrees with the current concept of Agama agama to a geographic population, particularly as the only character, viz. The colour pattern, is no longer discernible in this specimen. This endangers the stability of the known subspecies of Agama agama. We therefore designate as neotype for Lacerta agama Linnaeus, 1758 herein.


Agama africana (HALLOWELL, 1844)


DANIEL, P.M. (1960): Growth and cyclic behavior in the West African lizard Agama agama africana. – Copeia, 1960: 94-97.

DANIEL, P.M. (1961): Notes on the life-history of Agama agama africana (Hallowell) in Liberia. – Spec. Publ. Ohio Herpet. Soc. 3: 1-5.

ENGE, K.M., KRYSKO, K.L. & B.L. TALLEY (2004): Distribution and ecology of the introduced African rainbow lizard, Agama agama africana (Sauria; Agamidae), in Florida. – Florida Scientist, Gainsville, 67: 303-310.

We document populations of the introduced African rainbow lizard (Agama agama africana) in Homestead, Miami-Dade County; Hollywood, Broward County; Palm City, Martin County; Punta Gorda, Charlotte County; and Sanford, Seminole County. The Homestead and Punta Gorda populations have been established for over 10 yr and have expanded at least 0.5 km from the point of introduction. The Palm City population has been established since 1999 and the Sanford population since 2000. All agamas were observed in urban or suburban situations perched on walls, rooftops, bridges, rocks, sidewalks, curbstones, or trees. We collected 33 voucher specimens from five populations 28 March 2002–11 March 2004. Maximum clutch size and maximum snout-vent length (SVL) of male and female A. a. africana in Florida exceeded those in native Nigerian populations. All adult females (> 94 mm SVL) collected May–August contained 5–18 vitellogenic follicles or oviductal eggs, but a female collected on 19 September was not gravid. Monitoring should be conducted to determine whether the species might eventually invade natural habitats and its potential impacts on native wildlife species.

HALLOWELL, E. (1844): Description of Agama africana. – In: “Description of new species of African reptiles”. - Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1844: 169-172.


Agama anchietae BOCAGE, 1896

Anchieta´s Agama

BOCAGE, J.V. B. du (1896): Sur deux Agames d’Angola a ecaillure Heterogene. – Journal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa, 4: 127-130.

BUISWALELO, B.N. (2018): A description of reproduction, diet, nematode infection and sexual dimorphism in Agama anchietae and Pedioplanis undata undata (Reptilia: Lacertilia) in Namibia. - Master Thesis, University of Namibia. 31 pp.

The objectives of this study were to describe reproduction, diet, nematode infection and sexual dimorphism in Agama anchietae and Pedioplanis undata undata, two Namibian lizard species with wide geographic distributions for which such baseline ecological information is still lacking. The specimens used in the study came from the preserved Herpetological Collection of the National Museum of Namibia. Agama anchietae occupies rocky areas and the findings were as follows, reproduction: (i) it reproduces in spring and summer, the warm and rainy season of Namibia when insect food abounds, presumably to optimize the survival of its offspring, (ii) the gonads were inactive during autumn and winter, (iii) the mass of its abdominal fat bodies and liver decreased during the reproductive period, presumably because they serve as sources of energy during that time; diet: (i) prey items consumed by the sexes belonged to the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Mantodea, (ii) in addition to these an item belonging to the Diptera was also found in males, (iii) no significant numerical differences were found between the sexes with respect to the items consumed, (iv) the fact that hymenopterans occurred in substantially higher numbers suggest that the species relies mainly on sit-and-wait foraging; nematode infection: (i) in both sexes a larger number of nematodes occurred in the stomach than in the intestine, (ii) no significant numerical differences in infection were found between the sexes; sexual dimorphism: (i) males were larger than females in absolute body size, (ii) relative hind-limb but not forelimb length of males was significantly longer than that of females; (iii) relative head breath, length and width of males were all significantly greater than that of females. Pedioplanis undata undata occurs in flat open areas and the findings were as follows, reproduction: (i) a similar pattern with respect to the activity of the gonads as reported for A. anchietae above was also found in this species, (ii) the same also applied to the mass fluctuations of the abdominal fat bodies and the liver; diet: (i) males consumed items belonging to the orders Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Blatoidea, Solifugida as well as larvae, (ii) in females the prey items belonged to the Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Aranea, (iii) no significant numerical differences were found between the sexes for similar prey items, (iv) the low numbers of hymenopterans but fairly high diversity of prey types suggest that this species is a wide forager; nematode infection: (i) in both the stomach and intestine nematode infection was low with that of the stomach marginally higher than that of the intestine, (ii) no significant numerical differences were found between males and females; sexual dimorphism: (i) males and females were of similar body size, (ii) males had significantly longer fore-and hind-limbs than females, and may therefore be able to run faster, (iii) relative head breath, length and width of males were all significantly greater than that of females.

WAGNER, P., BAREJ, M.F. & A. SCHMITZ (2009): Studies on African Agama VII. A new species of the Agama agama-group (Linnaeus, 1758) (Sauria: Agamidae) from Cameroon & Gabon, with comments on Agama mehelyi Tornier, 1902. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 285-297.

In the course of recent taxonomic studies in the African Agamidae the West African species were examined and new species have been identified. In this publication a new species of the genus Agama Daudin, 1802 is described from Cameroon and Gabon. Males of the new species differ from all other known Agama in the unique combination of the reticulate colouration of the throat and the blue tip of tail. It is compared with the other Cameroonian members of the genus and several other Agama species from Africa. Additionally, the status of Agama mehelyi Tornier, 1902, only known from its holotype, is discussed.


Agama armata PETERS, 1855

Bodenagame

DIECKMANN, M. (2005): Das Agamenportrait. Bodenagame Agama armata PETERS, 1854. – Iguana-Rundschreiben, 18 (1): 4-8.

Zusammenfassung:
Die Bodenagame Agama armata gehört zurzeit zu den häufiger importierten Arten. Leider kommt es aufgrund ihrer engen Verwandtschaft und ihres ähnlichen Aussehens immer wieder zu Fehlbestimmungen mit der Stachelagame Agama aculeata MERREM, 1820 und deren Unterart Agama aculeate distanti BOULENGER, 1902. Für eine erfolgreiche Pflege dieser Tiere müssen jedoch Kenntnisse über Lebensraum, Lebensweise und Biologie vorhanden sein, die hier einmal kurz vorgestellt werden sollen, um diesen schönen und hoch interessanten Agamen in Zukunft einen festen Platz in der Terraristik zu ermöglichen.

JACOBSEN, N.H.G. (1993): The status of Agama aculeata armata PETERS 1854 (Reptilia: Agamidae). – J. Herp. Assoc. Africa, 41: 30-34.

PIETERSEN, D. & E. PIETERSEN (2002): Agama armata Peter’s Ground Agama. – Afr. Herp News, 35: 23.


Agama atra DAUDIN, 1802

Southern Rock Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. & J.H. POWER (1921): A revision of the South African agamas allied to Agama hispida and Agama atra. – Transact. Roy. Soc. S. Africa, Caope Town, 9: 229-287.

BRUTON, M.N. (1977): Feeding, social behaviour and temperature preferences in Agama atra Daudin (Reptilia, Agamidae). – Zoologica, afr., 12 (1): 183-199.

BURRAGE, B.R. (1974): Population structure in Agama atra and Cordylus cordylus cordylus in the vicinity of De Kelders, Cape Province. – Annals S. Afr.Mus., 66 (1): 1-23.

GRUBERMANN, M.(2013): Einige fotografische Beobachtungen an Agamen in Kenia, Tansania, Malawi, Südafrika und Namibia. – Iguana, 26 (1): 23-33.

MATTHEE, C.A. & A.F. FLEMMING (2002): Population fragmentation in the southern rock agama, Agama atra: more evidence for vicariance in Southern Africa. – Molecular Ecology, Oxford, 11: 465-471.

PETERS, W.C.H. (1854): Description of Agama armata. – In: “Diagnosen neuer Batrachier, welche zusammen mit der früher (24. Juli und 17. August) gegebenen Übersicht der Schlangen und Eidechsen mitgetheilt werden”. - Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1854: 614-628.

WYK, J.H. van (1984): Ovarian morphological changes during the annual breeding cycle of the rock lizard Agama atra (Sauria: Agamidae). – Navorsinge Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein, 4: 237-275.

BRANCH, W.B. (1988): Life History Note: Agama atra atra. Reproduction. – Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr., 35: 39.

CLARK, D.I. (1991): Life History Note: Agama atra atra. Reproduction. – Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr., 39: 21.

DAUDIN, F.M. (1802): Description of Agama atra. – In: “Histoire Naturelle, génerale et particulièredes reptiles, ouvrage faisant suite, a l'histoire naturelle vol. 3. F. Dufart, Paris.

DOUGLAS, R.M. (1993): Life History Note: Agama atra atra. – Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr., 42: 235-36.

MOUTON, P.I.F.N. & Y.M. HERSELMAN (1994): Paradoxical reproduction and body size in the rock lizard, Agama atra atra, in Namaqualand, South Africa. – South African Journal of Zoology, 29(3): 199-203.

SWART, B. (2006): The phylogeography of the southern rock agama (Agama atra) in the Cape Fold Mountains, South Africa. - Thesis. Department of Zoology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. 88 pp.

An understanding of the phylogeography and evolutionary processes involved in speciation is essential for the conservation and management of any particular species. To investigate the phylogeographic patterns in Agama atra from the Cape Fold Mountains (CFM), 98 individuals from 38 geographically close localities were analysed. In addition, to understand the phylogeographic associations between the CFM populations and the rest of Southern Africa, 18 specimens from 12 localities outside the CFM were also included. A total of 988 characters derived from two mitochondrial DNA fragments (control region and ND2) revealed 59 distinct haplotypes in the CFM. Parsimony, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed four distinct clades associated with geography within the CFM. These clades were supported by a haplotype network and were defined as the Cape Peninsula clade, the Limietberg clade, the northern CFM clade and the central CFM clade. Analysis of molecular variance confirmed the high degree of genetic structure within the CFM, with more than 75% of genetic variation found among the geographic areas. SAMOVA and nested clade analysis (NCA) suggest that the central CFM clade may be more diverse than detected by the networks and the phylogenetic analyses. The processes that caused the four distinct genetic groups in the CFM are not yet clear. Using a speculative molecular clock estimate, the main cladogenesis of A. atra within the CFM took place, approximately ~6.5 - 9 MYA. This dating coincides well with the documented Miocene-Pliocene climate fluctuations which might have contributed towards the isolation among lineages. The genetic structure found in A. atra is also markedly congruent with what has been found in other taxa such as Mesamphisopus spesies, Potamonautes brincki, and Pedioplanis burchelli and this would further support vicariance as a main isolating factor here.

WYK, J.H. van (1982): The morphological and physiological changes during the reproductive cycle of the female rock lizard, Agama atra Daudin, 1802. - Thesis. University of Stellenbosch. 162 pp.

WYK, J.H. van (1984): Physiological changes during the ovarian cycle of the female rock lizard, Agama atra (Sauria: Agamidae). - S.-Afr. Tydskr. Dierk., 19(4): 253-260.

WYK, J.H. van (1984): Ovarian morphological changes during the annual breeding cycle of the rock lizard Agama atra (Sauria: Agamidae). – Navorsinge Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein, 4: 237-275.

WYK, J.H. van & L. RUDDOCK (2000): The male reproductive cycle of the lizard Agama atra (Sauria: Agamidae) in central South Africa. – Amphibia-Reptilia, 22 (1): 119-123.


Agama bocourti ROCHEBRUNE,1884

Bocourt´s Agama

ROCHEBRUNE, A.T. de (1884): Description of Agama bocourti. – In: “Faune de la Senegambie. Reptiles”. O. Doine, Paris, 1-221.


Agama boensis MONARD, 1940

MONARD, A. (1940): Description of Agama boensis. In:“Résultats de la mission du Dr. Monard en Guinée Portugaise 1937 –1938”. - Arq. Mus. Bocage, Lisbon, 11: 147-182.


Agama bottegi BOULENGER, 1897

Somali Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. (1898): Description of Agama bottegi. – In: “Concluding report on the late Capt. Bottego’s collection of reptiles and batrachians from Somaliland and British East Africa”. - Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, (2) 18: 715-723 [1897].


Agama boueti CHABANAUD, 1917

Mali Agama

CHABANAUD, P. (1917): Description of Agama boueti. – In: “Enumération des reptiles non encore étudiés de l'Afrique occidentale, appartenant aux collections du Muséum, avec la description des espèces nouvelles”. - Bull. Mus. nat. Hist. nat. Paris, 23: 83-105.

MEDIANI, M. &F. CHEVALIER (2016): Agama boueti CHABANAUD, 1917: new to the herpetofauna of Morocco and the northwesternmost record of the species. – Herpetozoa, 28 (3/4): 187-191.

JOGER, U. (1979): Zur Ökologie und Verbreitung wenig bekannter Agamen Westafrikas (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main, 15 (1): 31-52. (00.034)

Zusammenfassung:
Die noch sehr ungenügenden ökologischen und zoogeographischen Kenntnisse über die Agamen der westafrikanischen Savanne soll diese Studie erweitern helfen. Die vier hier behandelten Arten erweisen sich in bezug auf ihren bevorzugten Biotop als stenök und allotop. Sie weichen der zwischenartlichen Konkurrenz durch ökologische Sonderung aus.
Agama boueti bestätigt sich durch den Neunachweis aus der Republik Niger als Bewohner sandiger Flächen zwischen dem Südrand der Sahara und dem Übergangsgebiet Sahel-/Sudan-Savanne. Die südlich daran anschließenden offenen Landschaften werden von A. sankaranica bewohnt. Die myrmecophage Zwergform A. weidholzi löst A. sankaranica auf dem laubbedeckten Boden der Trockenwälder zwischen dem Oberlauf des Niger und der Casamance ab. Agama boulengeri ist ein Endemit der variskischen Faltungsgebiete zwischen dem mauretanischen Adrar und dem oberen Senegal, wo die Art sich nur auf trockenheißen Felsplateaus gegen die ähnlich eingenischte A. agama behaupten kann.
Die beobachtete Aufnahme sukkulenter Pflanzenteile durch A. boulengeri und A. boueti wird als Anpassung an das Leben in Trockenbiotopen gedeutet, was durch die Tatsache gestützt wird, daß A. boueti im feuchten Küstengebiet keine Pflanzennahrung aufnimmt.
Die bodenlebenden Arten sind solitär, A. boulengeri zeigt Ansätze zu sozialer Gruppenbildung.
Die Fortpflanzung scheint bei allen Arten in der Regenzeit zu erfolgen, doch fehlen exakte Belege.
Zahlreiche Probleme harren noch ihrer Lösung, so zum Beispiel bei A. weidholzi die Bedeutung der auffälligen Farbmale und das augenscheinliche Fehlen von Adulten in der Trockenzeit.

KARNS, D.R. & M. CISSÈ (1975): Découverte d´Agama boueti CHABANAUD (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae) au Sénégal avec notes systématiques et écologiques. – Bull. Inst. Fondament. Afr. noire, sér. A, Dakar, 37 (4): 939-940.

PADIAL, J.M. (2005): A new species of Agama (Sauria: Agamidae) from Mauritania. – Herpetological Journal, 15: 27-35.

Abstract:
A new agamas pecies of the Agama agama species group, is described from the Adrar Mountains of Mauritania. in the Meridional Sahara. This species is morphologically similar and genetically related to Agama impalearis. It is characterized by smallb size (snout-vent length of adults: 67.6-74.88 mm); long hind legs; gular region with brown irregular longitudinal lines; 10 preanal pores; fourth finger longer than first; small nuchal crest (composed of six spines)and absence of caudal crest; reddish eyelid in males; smooth head scales; regular keeled and mucronate dorsal scales: ventral scales smaller than dorsals; 55 - 63 scales around mid body; 10 - 12 surpralabials; 9 -12 infralabials; 8 - 9 group of spines between the anterior margin of the ear opening and the shoulder; 12 lamellae under fourth finger; 19 - 21 lamellae under fourth toe. It is a solitary rock dweller inhabiting extremely dry habitats with scarce vegetation.


Agama boulengeri LATASTE, 1886

Boulenger´s Agama

JOGER, U. (1979): Zur Ökologie und Verbreitung wenig bekannter Agamen Westafrikas (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main, 15 (1): 31-52. (00.034)

Zusammenfassung:
Die noch sehr ungenügenden ökologischen und zoogeographischen Kenntnisse über die Agamen der westafrikanischen Savanne soll diese Studie erweitern helfen. Die vier hier behandelten Arten erweisen sich in bezug auf ihren bevorzugten Biotop als stenök und allotop. Sie weichen der zwischenartlichen Konkurrenz durch ökologische Sonderung aus.
Agama boueti bestätigt sich durch den Neunachweis aus der Republik Niger als Bewohner sandiger Flächen zwischen dem Südrand der Sahara und dem Übergangsgebiet Sahel-/Sudan-Savanne. Die südlich daran anschließenden offenen Landschaften werden von A. sankaranica bewohnt. Die myrmecophage Zwergform A. weidholzi löst A. sankaranica auf dem laubbedeckten Boden der Trockenwälder zwischen dem Oberlauf des Niger und der Casamance ab. Agama boulengeri ist ein Endemit der variskischen Faltungsgebiete zwischen dem mauretanischen Adrar und dem oberen Senegal, wo die Art sich nur auf trockenheißen Felsplateaus gegen die ähnlich eingenischte A. agama behaupten kann.
Die beobachtete Aufnahme sukkulenter Pflanzenteile durch A. boulengeri und A. boueti wird als Anpassung an das Leben in Trockenbiotopen gedeutet, was durch die Tatsache gestützt wird, daß A. boueti im feuchten Küstengebiet keine Pflanzennahrung aufnimmt.
Die bodenlebenden Arten sind solitär, A. boulengeri zeigt Ansätze zu sozialer Gruppenbildung.
Die Fortpflanzung scheint bei allen Arten in der Regenzeit zu erfolgen, doch fehlen exakte Belege.
Zahlreiche Probleme harren noch ihrer Lösung, so zum Beispiel bei A. weidholzi die Bedeutung der auffälligen Farbmale und das augenscheinliche Fehlen von Adulten in der Trockenzeit.

LAMBERT, M.R.K. & W.C. MULLIÉ (1998): Sexual dichromatism of Agama boulengeri observed in Southern Mauritania. – British Herpetological Society Bulletin, 65: 42-44.

LATASTE, F. (1886): Description d'un saurien nouveau du Haut Sénégal. - Le Naturaliste, 8 (27): 212-213.

VALE, C.G., TARROSO, P., CAMPOS, J.C., VASCONCELOS GONÇALVES & J.C. BRITO (2012): Distribution, suitable areas and conservation status of the Boulenger’s agama (Agama boulengeri, Lataste, 1886). – Amphibia-Reptilia, 33 (3-4): 526-532.

Agama boulengeri is a West African endemic lizard. It occurs in arid rocky areas in the Mauritanian mountains and Kayes region of Mali. Data on the distribution of Agama boulengeri is however very coarse, and the contribution of climatic and habitat factors for population isolation are unknown. Using Maxent, GLM, and high-resolution data, we generated environmental niche models, and quantified suitable areas for species occurrence. Field observations and predicted suitable areas were used to evaluate the conservation status of Agama boulengeri. Results revealed the species occurs preferentially close to gueltas, bare areas, and rocky deserts and in areas of increasing rainfall. Suitable cells were mostly located in Mauritania, and four potentially fragmented subpopulations were identified. The conservation status of Agama boulengeri was determined to be of Least Concern.

WAGNER, P., INEICH, I., LEACHE, A.D., WILMS, T.M., TRAPE, S., BÖHME, W. & A. SCHMITZ (2009): Studies on African Agama VI. Taxonomic status of the West African Agama (Sauria: Agamidae) with prominent tail crests: Agama boulengeri Lataste 1886, Agama insularis Chabanaud, 1918 and Agama cristata Mocquard, 1905. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 239-253.

Abstract:
This publication reviews the taxonomy of three West African Agama species, A. boulengeri, A. cristata, and A. insularis, each characterized by a prominent tail crest in adult males. Following the results from morphological and genetic analyses, Agama insularis is recognized as a synonym of the revalidated Agama cristata, whereas this species is clearly distinct from Agama boulengeri. We present a detailed distribution map for these Agama species, as well as for A. weidholzi. Following the results of recent publications, Agama atra knobeli is herein regarded as a full species.



Agama caudospinosa MEEK, 1910

Eimenteita Rock Agama

BERTRAND, M. & D. MODRY (2004): The role of mite pocket-like structures on Agama caudospinosa (Agamidae) infested by Pterygosoma livingstonei sp. n. (Acari: Prostigmata: Pterygosomati-dae). – Folia Parasitologica, 51: 61-66.

Abstract:
Pterygosoma livingstonei sp. n. collected from the Kenyan lizard Agama caudospinosa Meek shows morphological affinities with other South African congener species parasitizing lizards of the genus Agama, especially with P. triangulare Lawrence, 1936, but it differs in having glabrous genua II and III. P. livingstonei shows affinities with the Lawrence´s hispida species group in the characters of genital and peripheral setae. This new species was found concentrated in a nuchal “mite pocket-like structure”, a behaviour previously unreported among species belonging to the genus Pterygosoma. Mite pockets (or acarodomatia, acarinaria) of lizards typically house damaging chigger mites, and are usually interpreted as the evolutionary host´s response to limit damage caused by parasites. Because scale mites are permanent ectoparasites and less damaging than seasonally occurring larval trombiculids, the heavy infestation by P. livingstonei in the nuchal skin folds of its hosts is interpreted as a consequence of the best utilization of an available protected site by these mites that spend their entire life cycle on their host and whose primitive body shape prevents them from seeking shelter beneath the scales of their lizard host.

INGRAM, G.A. & D.H. MOLYNEUX (1984): Antigen distribution and humoral response in the lizard Agama caudospinosum, after injection with Leishmania agamae. – Dev. Comp. Immunol., 8: 339-349.


Agama cristata MOCQUARD, 1905

Scortecci´s Agama

MOCQUARD, F. (1905): Description de deux nouvelles espèces de Reptiles. – Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris 11: 288-290.

TRAPE, J.-F. (2011): Agama cristata MOCQUARD, 1905 and Agama insularis CHABANAUD, 1918 (Squamata, Agamidae): two valid West African species. – Journal of Herpetology, 45 (3): 352-354.

Agama cristata and Agama insularis are two poorly known West African species that are generally regarded either as dubious or synonyms. Agama cristata was described from a single specimen that was partially mutilated, thus preventing a precise count of midbody scale rows. There have been no further records for this species until it was considered as a senior synonym of A. insularis, a species that was until recently known only from Los Islands, off the coast of Guinea. A particularity of the type of A. cristata is the presence of two black spots on each side of the neck. During a field trip in southern Mali, I found a specimen with the same characteristics as the type of A. cristata. Further sampling provided 16 additional similar specimens. Comparison of pattern and meristic data indicates than A. cristata and A. insularis are two distinct species that can be distinguished easily both on pattern and midbody scale count, 71–90 for A. cristata versus 111–147 for A. insularis. Both species also differ by their geographic distribution and habitat.

WAGNER, P., INEICH, I., LEACHE, A.D., WILMS, T.M., TRAPE, S., BÖHME, W. & A. SCHMITZ (2009): Studies on African Agama VI. Taxonomic status of the West African Agama (Sauria: Agamidae) with prominent tail crests: Agama boulengeri Lataste 1886, Agama insularis Chabanaud, 1918 and Agama cristata Mocquard, 1905. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 239-253.

Abstract:
This publication reviews the taxonomy of three West African Agama species, A. boulengeri, A. cristata, and A. insularis, each characterized by a prominent tail crest in adult males. Following the results from morphological and genetic analyses, Agama insularis is recognized as a synonym of the revalidated Agama cristata, whereas this species is clearly distinct from Agama boulengeri. We present a detailed distribution map for these Agama species, as well as for A. weidholzi. Following the results of recent publications, Agama atra knobeli is herein regarded as a full species.


WAGNER, P. & W. BÖHME (2009): On te status in nomenclature of Agama cristata Mocquard, 1905. A reply to Andrei Barabanov. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 16 (2): 161-162.

Agama doriae BOULENGER, 1885

Nigeria Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. (1885): Description d’une espèce nouvelle d’Agame. – Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Genova (2) 2: 127-128.

MOODY, S.M. & W. BÖHME (1984): Merkmalsvariation and taxonomische Stellung von Agama doriae Boulenger, 1885 und Agama benueensis Monard, 1951 (Reptilia: Agamidae) aus dem Sudangürtel Afrikas. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 35 (1-3): 107-120. (01.175)

166 Exemplare der Artengruppe Agama doriae / A. benueensis wurden nach 35 morphologischen Merkmalen analysiert und statistisch ausgewertet. Ihre Verbreitung wird auf erläuterten Punktkarten ausführlich dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß innerhalb beider Arten keine taxonomisch relevanten Gruppierungen abgrenzbar sind, und daß beide nominellen Arten als Subspeczies einer einzigen Art Agama doriae aufzufassen sind. Die nominellen Unterarten sennariensis und kordofanensis stellen Synonyme zur Nominat-Unterart dar.


Agama doriae doriae BOLENGER, 1885

Nigeria Agama


Agama doriae benuensis (MONARD, 1951)

Nigeria Agama

MOODY, S.M. & W. BÖHME (1984): Merkmalsvariation and taxonomische Stellung von Agama doriae Boulenger, 1885 und Agama benueensis Monard, 1951 (Reptilia: Agamidae) aus dem Sudangürtel Afrikas. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 35 (1-3): 107-120. (01.175)

166 Exemplare der Artengruppe Agama doriae / A. benueensis wurden nach 35 morphologischen Merkmalen analysiert und statistisch ausgewertet. Ihre Verbreitung wird auf erläuterten Punktkarten ausführlich dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß innerhalb beider Arten keine taxonomisch relevanten Gruppierungen abgrenzbar sind, und daß beide nominellen Arten als Subspeczies einer einzigen Art Agama doriae aufzufassen sind. Die nominellen Unterarten sennariensis und kordofanensis stellen Synonyme zur Nominat-Unterart dar.


Agama etoshae McLACHLAN, 1981


BÖHME, W., WAGNER, P., MALONZA, P., LÖTTERS, S & J. KÖHLER (2005): A new species of the Agama agama group (Squamata: Agamidae) from western Kenya, East Africa, with comments on Agama lionotus BOULENGER, 1896. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 12 (2): 143-150.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1997): New distribution records for Agama etoshae (McLACHLAN 1981) in Northern Namibia. – Israel J. Zool., 43: 405-407.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1998): Reproduction in Agama etoshae McLACHLAN 1981 from Namibia. – Amphibia-Reptilia, 19 (1): 99-103.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1999): Summer diet of Agama etoshae MCLACHLAN 1981 from Namibia. – Russ. Jour. Herp., 6 (1): 45-47
.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (2001): Sexual size dimorphism in Agama etoshae (McLachlan 1981). - African Journal of Ecology, 39: 303-305.

Agama finchi BÖHME, WAGNER, MALONZA, LÖTTERS & KÖHLER, 2005

Finch’s agama

Agama finchi finchi BÖHME WAGNER, MALONZA, LÖTTERS & KÖHLER, 2005

BÖHME, W., WAGNER, P., MALONZA, P., LÖTTERS, S & J. KÖHLER (2005): A new species of the Agama agama group (Squamata: Agamidae) from western Kenya, East Africa, with comments on Agama lionotus BOULENGER, 1896. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 12: 143-150.


Agama finchi leucerythrolaema WAGNER, FREUND, MODRÝ, SCHMITZ & BÖHME, 2011

WAGNER, P., FREUND, W., MODRÝ, D., SCHMITZ, A. & W. BÖHME (2011): Studies on African Agama IX. New insights into Agama finchi Böhme et al., 2005 (Sauria: Agamidae), with the description of a new subspecies. – Bonn zoological Bulletin, Bonn, 60 (1): 25-34.

We present new information on the distribution and morphology of Agama finchi from eastern Africa. For the first time, material from three different populations (including the type locality) was available and the question of a possible subspecies in Uganda was positively answered. Based on the distribution pattern of Agama species groups, a general distribution pattern is discussed.


Agama gracilimembris CHABANAUD, 1918

Benin Agama

CHABANAUD, P. (1918): Étude complémentaire de deux Agama de l'Afrique occidentale et description de quatre espèces nouvelles de reptiles de la même région. - Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (1918) 24 (2): 104-112.

GARTSHORE, M.E. (1985): Agama gracilimembris in Nigeria. – Herp. Jour., 1: 23-25.

GRANDISON, A.G.C. (1969): Agama weidholzi (Sauria: Agamidae) of West Africa and its relationship to Agama gracilimembris. – Bull. Inst. Fundament. Afr. noire, sér. A, Dakar, 30 (2): 666-675.


Agama hartmanni PETERS, 1869

Hartmann´s Agama

PETERS, W.C.H. (1869): Eine Mittheilung über neue Gattungen und Arten von Eidechsen. - Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, 1869: 57-66.


Agama hispida KAUP, 1827

Common Spiny Agama

BARRY, T.H. (1953): Contributions to the cranial morphology of Agama hispida (Linn.). – Ann. Univ. Stellenbosch, 29A (2): 55-77.

BOULENGER, G.A. & J.H. POWER (1921): A revision of the South African agamas allied to Agama hispida and Agama atra. – Transact. Roy. Soc. S. Africa, Caope Town, 9: 229-287.

CORNELIUS, A., MARAIS, A. & P. CUNNINGHAM (2012): Agama hispida (Linnaeus, 1754) Southern Spiny Agama. Geographical distribution. – Afr. Herp News, (56): 35-37.

DOBIEY, M. (2005): Das Agamenporträt: Agama hispida (LINNAEUS, 1758. – Iguana-Rundschreiben, 18 (2): 15-19.

KAUP, J. (1827): Description of Agama hispida. – In: “ Zoologische Monographien”. - Isis von Oken 20: 610—625.

McLACHLAN, G.R. (1981): Taxonomy of Agama hispida (Sauria: Agamidae) in southern Africa. – Cimbebasia A 5: 219-227.

Agama hispida hispida (KAUP, 1827)

Common Spiny Agama


Agama hispida makarikarika FITZSIMONS, 1932

Common Spiny Agama

FITZSIMONS, V. (1932): Preliminary descriptions of new forms of South African Reptilia and Amphibia, from the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, 1930. - Ann. Transvaal Mus. 15 (1): 35-40.

STEYN, W., FINKELDEY, H. & P.J. BUYS (1963): Agama hispida makarikarica FitzSimons. A preliminary note on its occurrence in South West Africa and behaviour. – Cimbebasia No. 6: 12-15.


Agama hulbertorum WAGNER, 2014

Atlasagame

WAGNER, P. (2014): A new cryptic species of the Agama lionotus complex from south of the Ngong Hills in Kenya. – Salamandra, 50 (4): 187-200.

East Africa, especially if including the Horn of Africa, is a centre of diversity for African Agamid lizards and har­bours the endemic lineage of the Agama lionotus complex, which currently comprises nine species. Species of the complex are mainly characterized by their throat pattern in adult males, which can be used for species identification. Among them, Agama lionotus and Agama dodomae show a very distinct colouration of a blue body and a white/blue annulated tail – a colour pattern that is otherwise only known from the southern African Agama kirkii. Within the complex, Agama lionotus is the most widely distributed taxon, ranging from Ethiopia to northern Tanzania and being replaced by Agama dodomae farther south in Tanzania. Other taxa of the complex are more restricted in their distribution. In this study, specimens from a larger area south of the Ngong Hills are examined and compared with other members of the complex, because they show an overall similarity to Agama lionotus, but are distinctly smaller. Examining the morphological (62 characters) and ge­netical (16S, ND4, CMOS) data indicates that these specimens represent a new species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analy­ses support the new taxon as not closely related to Agama lionotus itself, but as a member of the complex. The new species is especially characterized by its small size. Adult males have a vertebral stripe, a blue body colouration and an annulated white/blue tail. Further typical characters are the low number of scale rows around midbody, the pear-shaped and keeled nasal scale, the minute nuchal crest, and the feebly keeled vertebral scales, followed by dorsal and lateral keeled scales. The results of this study improve our understanding of the diversity of agamid lizards in East Africa and support the value of adult male throat coloration for the identification of species within the Agama lionotus complex.


Agama impalearis (BOETTGER, 1874)

Atlasagame

BOETTGER, O. (1874): Description of Agama impalearis. – In: “Reptilien von Marocco und von den canarischen Inseln”. - Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt), 9: 121-191 [1873].

BONS, J. (1963): Note preliminaire sur l´oriéntation de l´embryon dans l´oeuf chez le lizard Agama bibroni Dum. – Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. Maroc, 43: 39-47.

BONS, J. (1968): Comportement d’Agama bibroni A. Dum. 1851 (Sauria) durant la periode de reproduction. – Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. phys. Maroc, 48 (3): 93-99.

BROWN, R.P., SUAREZ, N.M. & J. PESTANO (2002): The Atlas mountaiuns as a biogeographical divide in North-West Africa: evidence from mtDNA evolution in the Agamid lizard Agama impalearis. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Orlando (Academic Press), 24: 324-332.

BROWN, R.P. & M. ZNARI (1998): Geographic variation in Agama impalearis from Morocco: evidence for historical population vicariance and current climatic effects. – Ecography, Copenhagen, 21: 605-612.

Abstract:
Morphological and molecular surveys of within-island geographic variation in lizards have revealed patterns of geographic variation that reflect both population vicariance and in situ selection-mediated responses to the ecological heterogeneity of the islands. This study tested different models of differentiation in a continental species, the agamid Agama impalearis, in which spatial is much greater than that in island species. Patterns of among-site differentiation in morphology were described and a character-resampling technique used to investigate their robustness. Putative causes were evaluated by testing multivariate patterns of differentiation against models baased on historical and present-day effects using matrix association randomization tests. This strongly suggested the action of both vicariance/secondary contact and current climatic conditions in shaping the patterns of morphological variation. Then former appears to be the result of range concentration into refugia separated by the Atlas mountain range during glacial conditions, with subsequent secondary contact during warmer interglacial periods. Scalation showed a very clear association with geographic difference in thermal regime, even after the vicariance/gene-flow induced non-independence had been taken into account. This latter finding indicates that patterns observed in other lizards are quite general.

BROWN, R.P., ZNARI, M., EL MOUDEN, E.N. & P.E HARRIS (1999): Estimating asyntopic body size and testing geographic variation in Agama impalearis. – Ecography, 22: 277-284.

CAPEL-WILLIAMS, G. & D. PRATTE (1978): The diet of adult and juvenile Agama bibroni (Reptilia: Lacertae) and a study of the jaw mechanisms in the two age groups. - J. Zool., Lond., 185: 309-318.

A study of wild Agama bibroni indicated that adults fed largely on Orthoptera with an active selection for species in the middle to large size range. The juvenile diet was mainly of Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This dietary difference led to a study of jaw mechanisms suggesting that due to a differential growth of the cranial bones, particularly those of the lower jaw, the mechanical advantages of the adult and juvenile jaws differed considerably. This allowed the rapid bite of the adult to be two and a half times more powerful, per unit area, than that of the juvenile. During slow close there was almost no difference in efficiency. From this it is suggested that the differing diets are not only the result of different habitats but also due to skeletal arrangements.

GARCÍA-CARDENETE, L., FLORES-STOLS, M.V., JIMÉNEZ-CAZALLA, F. & S. YUBERO (2016): Predation of an adult of Agama impalearis by Falco tinnunculus in eastern Morocco. – Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Esp., 27 (1): 42-43.

DERVRIESE, L., DECOSTORE, A. & F. HAESEBROUCK (2004): Dermatitis and Septicaemia in a captive population of Agama impalearis caused by unknown Actinobacteria. – Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Pathology and Medicine in Reptiles and Amphibians, Berlin.

EL MOUDEN, E., BONS, J., PIEAU, C. RENOUS, S., ZNARI, M. & A. BOUMEZZOUGH (2000): Table de développement embryonnaire d’un lézard agamidé, Agama impalearis Boettger, 1874. – Ann. Sc. Nat., 21 (3): 93-115.

This is the first description of the embryonic development of an agamid lizard from North Africa, Agama impalearis. The developmental stages of only one species of the same family, Calotes versicolor, had been described previously. Two complementary studies had been performed on this Asian species, one dealing with intra-oviductal development, the other with extra-oviductal development. Among other iguanians, several cameleonid species and only two American iguanid species had apparently been examined. The other previous studies dealt with some species among the Lacertidae (complete or partial embryonic development), Scincidae, Cordylidae and Anguidae (partial embryonic development). In the present table, 42 stages have been distinguished during the embryonic development of A. impalearis. Stages 1 to 27 correspond to intra-oviductal development including egg segmentation, gastrulation, neurulation and the beginning of organogenesis. Stages 28 to 42 describe morphological changes during extra-oviductal development, i.e. between egg-laying and hatching, and correspond to the continuation of the organogenesis. Although data in other groups are still incomplete, a comparison of the A. impalearis table with that of other lizards reveals a great homogeneity of embryonic development in these reptiles, except for the external ornamentation which is specific.

EL MOUDEN, E.H., ZNARI, M. & R.P. BROWN (1999): Skeletochronology and mark-recapture assessments of growth in the North African agamid lizard (Agama impalearis). - J. Zool., Lond., 249: 455-461.

Patterns of growth were studied between 1993 and 1996 in a population of Bibron's agama Agama impalearis from an arid area in the central Jbilet Mountains, western Morocco. Non-linear regressions were used to model snout±vent lengths (SVL) and body masses of individuals caught during 1993±94 against skeletochronology age estimates. The overlap between male and female asymptotic SVLs (A) was negligible demonstrating sexual dimorphism, although there was no evidence of differences in characteristic growth rates (k) between sexes (males: A= 119.43. 2.29 mm and k= 0.849. 0.09 [month-1], females: A= 108.59 . 3.19 mm and k= 1.079 . 0.162 [month-1]). Asymptotic body mass differed substantially between sexes (males: 71.2. 3.1 g, females: 45.8. 4.2 g), but corresponding characteristic growth rates were similar (0.753. 0.339 and 0.789 . 0.623 [month-1], respectively). The mark±recapture method provided generally higher and more reliable asymptotic size estimates (using the logistic-by-length nonlinear regression model) than the skeletochronology-based estimates. Growth parameters were also estimated on an individual year basis. Only male characteristic growth rate showed a signi®cant year-toyear variation (0.010. 0.006 to 0.024 . 0.007 [day-1]), although this may have been due to a lack of statistical power. Annual variation in the absolute growth rate was detected only in hatchlings (0.087. 0.018 to 0.273 . 0.132 mm.day-1) and adult males (0.089. 0.030 to 0.206 . 0.100 mm.day-1).

EL MOUDEN, E., ZNARI, M. & H. FRANCILLON-VIEILLOT (2001): Variations histologiques de l'ovaire au cours du cycle reproductif annuel chez Agama impalearis Boettger, 1874 (Reptilia: Agamidae). - Belg. J. Zool., 131 (1): 17-30.

The aim of the present work is to investigate the female reproductive cycle of the North African agamid, Agama impalearis. Histological changes of the whole ovarian cycle were described. Folliculogenesis and oocyte growth were comparable to the general lizard pattern. Asingle germinal bed per ovary was found. Only previtellogenic follicles were present during the non reproductive period and the onset of vitellogenesis was observed just after emergence from winter dormancy. Two vitellogenic cycles which probably produce two successive clutches per breeding season were observed. The number of vitellogenic follicles can reach 12 per ovarian vitellogenic cycle. The oocyte growth was accompagnied by changes in the theca, granulosa, zona pellucida and zona radiata layers. The postovulatory follicles (corpora lutea) were observed until the onset of the second vitellogenic cycle and disappeared rapidly after them. Two kinds of atretic follicles, hydratation stage and vitellogenic stage atretic follicles, were described. Atresia was less frequent in Agama impalearis and particularly concerned with larger vitellogenic follicles.

EL MOUDEN, E.H., ZNARI, M. & C. PIEAU (2001): Effects of incubation temperature on embryonic development and sex determination in the North African agamid lizard, Agama impalearis. – Herp. J., 11: 101-108.

The effects of temperature on incubation time, embryo survival, sex ratio , embryo growth and size at hatching were investigated in the north African Agamid lizard, Agama impalearis. Seven constant temperature treatments (spanning 20-36°C) were employed and a split clutch design was used to assign eggs from the same clutch to the different treatments. Incubation time varied significantly with temperature treatments. Embryos incubated at 32 °C, 34 °C and 36 °C hatched between 41 and 46 days, whereas embryos incubated at 26 °C and 28 °C hatched at 83 and 67 days respectively. Hatching success was higher at 28 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C and 34 °C, but much lower at 26 °C and 36 °C; hatching did not occur at 20 °C. Eggs incubated at 26 °C and 36 °C produced only females. At 28 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C and 34 °C, the percentages of males were 9%, 5 3 . 5%, 32%, and 58% respectively. These sex ratios can be explained by a temperature-dependent mechanism of sex determination. The relative growth rates are highest early in incubation and lower for several days prior to hatching. The relationship between snout-to-vent length and age of embryos seems to be best described by a polynomial fitted regression. Growth rates at 26 °C were much lower than those at 34 °C. Constant incubation temperatures affected both snout-to-vent length and body mass at hatching, with max i mum body size occurring at intermediate constant incubation temperatures (30 °C, 32 °C and 28 °C). According to this study, the optimal temperatures of embryonic development probably lies within the range 28-34 °C. The possible adaptive significance of incubation temperature effects on some life history characteristics of A. impalearis is discussed.

FRITZ, P. (2013): Agama impalearis BOETTGER, 1874 im Terrarium – von einer ungewöhnlichen Eiablage bis zum erfolgreichen Schlupf. – Sauria, Berlin, 35 (1): 11-20.

Es wird über den Lebensraum und die Verbreitung der Agamen-Art Agama impalearis berichtet. Anschließend die Terrarienhaltung der Art und die ersten Vermehrungserfolge vorgestellt. Ebenso wird eine eingewöhnliche Eiablage beschrieben und dokumentiert.

FRITZ, P. & A. HOLLERBAUM (2015): F²-Nachzucht der Atlasagame Agama impalearis BOETTGER, 1874 im Terrarium. – Sauria, Berlin, 37 (3): 35-36.

LANGERWERF, B. (1972): Een kennismaking met de Atlas-agame (Agama bibronii). – Lacerta, 31 (3): 49-52.

MÜLLER, H.D. (2003): Agama impalearis (BOETTGER, 1874) – die Atlasagame, altbekannt und selten im Terrarium. – Draco, Münster, 4 (2): 56-63.

Inhalt:
Äußere Merkmale, Geschlechtsunterschiede, Lebensraum, Terrarieneinrichtung, Terrarientechnik, Temperaturen und Überwinterung, Ernährung, Verhaltensweisen und Fortpflanzung, Jungtiere: Aufzucht, Entwicklung und Verhalten.

OPINION 952 (1971): Agama bibronii Duméril, 1851 (Reptilia): validated under the plenary powers. – Bull. zool. Nom., 28: 20-21.

SAINT GIRONS, H. (1967): Le cycle sexuel et les correlations hypophyso-genitales des males chez Agama bibroni Dumeril auMaroc. – Bull. biol. Fr. Belg., 101: 321-344.

SANTONIA, J. & J. BONS (1972): La differenciation des Bourgeons dentaires chez le lezard Agama bibroni A. Dum. – Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles et Physiques du Maroc, 52 (1-2): 227-241.


SAOUDI, M., NECER, A., BENSACI, M. & I. BOUAM (2017): Distribution extension of Agama impalearis (Boettger, 1874) (Reptilia: Agamidae), with a new record from Batna province, north-eastern Algeria. - Herpetology Notes, 10: 261-262.

SCHERER, J. (1907): Die Atlas-Agame (Agama bibroni). - Blätter für Aquarien und Terrarien-Kunde, 18 (43): 421-423.

SCHLEICH, H.-H., KÄSTLE, W. & K. KABISCH (1996): Agama impalearis, Boettger, 1874. – In: Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein.

SCHMIDT, P. (1907): Die Atlasagame (Agama bibroni) im Terrarium. – Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde, 18 (47): 470-472.

STIMSON, A.F. (1969): Agama bibronii DUMÉRIL 1851 (Reptilia: Sauria): Proposed validation under the plenary powers. Z.N. (S.) 1856. – Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, London, 25 (4/5): 186-187.

ZNARI, M. & H. BENFAIDA (2001): Comportement socio-sexuel et organisation spatiale chez l'Agame de Bibron, Agama impalearis. - Rev. Écol. (Terre Vie), 56: 321-338.

The social and sexual behaviour of a marked group of Agama impalearis was observed under natural conditions in an arid area of the central Jbilet mountains (Western Morocco) during spring 1 995 . Supplementary observations were made either in Iaboratory or in the field on unmarked individuals at different periods of the year from 1 993 to 1 996. We examined the behavioural repertoire of adults. A quantitative analysis of field data allowed to assess relative time proportions and frequencies of the main behavioural categories. The diurnal emergence of animais from their refuges appears to be greatly influenced by temperature as agamas were observed to emerge in the field at different times of the day but at closely similar thermal conditions. The Iizards are highly heliophilous and predominantly sit-and-wait foragers. Feeding behaviour, escape from ennemies, courtship, oviposition and other behaviours were described. Adult males are strongly territorial and have specifie display action-patterns of aggressive behaviour. The displays involve postural change, pushups and head nodds. They were able to rapidly change their colours. The two sexes showed differences in nuptial colours and behavioural attitudes. Contrary to males, females exhibited neither pushup nor head nodds but a specifie display with mouth-gaping when males are courting them. Monogamy is the predominant mating system and there is no real social hierarchy. Home ranges were larger in males and showed low overlaps. Basking and alert postures are predominant through activity time and pushups are the most frequent display.

ZNARI, M. & E. EL MOUDEN (1997): Seasonal changes in the diet of adult and juvenile Agama impalearis (Lacertilia: Agamidae) in the central Jbilet mountains, Morocco. - Journal of Arid Environments, 37: 403–412.

The diet of adult and juvenile Agama impalearis was studied over a 1-year period at an arid area in western Morocco. Formicidae, Isoptera and Coleoptera constituted most of their food, but various other arthropods and plant materials were also taken. There was marked seasonality in prey size and volumetric proportions of the major food items. The principal seasonal dietary change was the increase of ants and termites during summer in juveniles and adults, respectively, while plants were consumed much less. Differences in prey size selection and proportions of eaten prey between adults and juveniles could be attributed not only to differences in their body size but also to their habitat and activity patterns. Comparisons with other lizard populations from different environments suggested that the importance of Formicidae and/or Isoptera as prey, and probably also the importance of plants during cold months, would be a common feature of the agamid food habits in arid hot ecosystems.

ZNARI, M., EL MOUDEN, E. & A. BOUMEZZOUGH (1998): Structure et dynamique d’une population d’Agama impalearis (Sauria: Agamidae) dans les Jbilets Centrales, Maroc. - Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie), 53: 293-308.

A population study of Agama impalearis was conducted during two consecutive years (1993-1994) in a Juj ube bush site located in an arid area at the Jbilet Mountains (Western Morocco) . Lizards of both sexes required approximatively one year to reach sexual maturity. One to two clutches were produced per breeding season (May-August) and clutch size was significantly correlated with maternai body size. The annual reproductive output was in average of 20 eggs per female per year and did not exhibit a significant difference between the two years of study. Population size showed important seasonal changes throughout the study period and absolute spring density estimates were of 15 and 11 indlha, respectively in 1993 and 1994. In the post-reproductive period (September) the population density (excluding hatchlings) markedly declined and was only of 4-5 indlha. After the completion of hatching period (July to early November), the densities of hatchlings were 11 and 13 indlha respectively in 1993 and 1994 compensing for the population losses . The annual turnover rate of the population did not exhibit a significant yearly change and was of 77 %. Adult survivorship after the reproductive activity varied between years and j uvenile survival during the first year was estimated to be 35 %. Maximum longevity assessed by means of squelettochronology was 5 years.


Agama insularis CHABANAUD, 1918

Insular Agama

CHABANAUD, P. (1918): Etude d’une collection de reptiles de l’Afrique occidentale française. - Bull. Mus. nation. Mist. nat. Paris, 24: 160-166.

TRAPE, J.-F. (2011): Agama cristata MOCQUARD, 1905 and Agama insularis CHABANAUD, 1918 (Squamata, Agamidae): two valid West African species. – Journal of Herpetology, 45 (3): 352-354.

Agama cristata and Agama insularis are two poorly known West African species that are generally regarded either as dubious or synonyms. Agama cristata was described from a single specimen that was partially mutilated, thus preventing a precise count of midbody scale rows. There have been no further records for this species until it was considered as a senior synonym of A. insularis, a species that was until recently known only from Los Islands, off the coast of Guinea. A particularity of the type of A. cristata is the presence of two black spots on each side of the neck. During a field trip in southern Mali, I found a specimen with the same characteristics as the type of A. cristata. Further sampling provided 16 additional similar specimens. Comparison of pattern and meristic data indicates than A. cristata and A. insularis are two distinct species that can be distinguished easily both on pattern and midbody scale count, 71–90 for A. cristata versus 111–147 for A. insularis. Both species also differ by their geographic distribution and habitat.

WAGNER, P., INEICH, I., LEACHE, A.D., WILMS, T.M., TRAPE, S., BÖHME, W. & A. SCHMITZ (2009): Studies on African Agama VI. Taxonomic status of the West African Agama (Sauria: Agamidae) with prominent tail crests: Agama boulengeri Lataste 1886, Agama insularis Chabanaud, 1918 and Agama cristata Mocquard, 1905. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 239-253.

Abstract:
This publication reviews the taxonomy of three West African Agama species, A. boulengeri, A. cristata, and A. insularis, each characterized by a prominent tail crest in adult males. Following the results from morphological and genetic analyses, Agama insularis is recognized as a synonym of the revalidated Agama cristata, whereas this species is clearly distinct from Agama boulengeri. We present a detailed distribution map for these Agama species, as well as for A. weidholzi. Following the results of recent publications, Agama atra knobeli is herein regarded as a full species.



Agama kaimosae LOVERIDGE, 1935

LOVERIDGE, A. (1935): Description of Agama kaimosae. – In: “Scientific results of an expedition to rain forest regions in Eastern Africa – I. New reptiles and amphibians from East Africa”. – Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Coll., 79 (1): 3-19.

WAGNER, P., BURMANN, A. & W. BÖHME (2008): Studies on African Agama II. Resurrection of Agama agama kaimosae LOVERIDGE, 1935 (Squamata: Agamidae) from synonymy and its elevation to species rank. – Russian Journal of Herpetology.


Agama kirkii BOULENGER, 1885

Kirk´s Rock Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. (1885): Description of Agama kirkii. – In: “Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae”. London. 450 pp

BROADLEY, D.G. (2002): Agama kirkii Boulenger 1885. Kirk’s Rock Agama. Geographical distribution. – Afr. Herp News, 35: 22-23.


Agama kirkii kirkii BOULENGER, 1885

Kirk´s Rock Agama


Agama kirkii fitzsimonsi LOVERIDGE, 1950

Kirk´s Rock Agama

LOVERIDGE, A. (1950): A new agamid lizard (Agama kirkii fitzsimonsi) from Southern Rhodesia. – Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., 63: 127-130-


Agama knobeli BOULENGER & POWER, 1921

Southern Rock Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. & J.H. POWER (1921): A revision of the South African agamas allied to Agama hispida and Agama atra. – Transact. Roy. Soc. S. Africa, Caope Town, 9: 229-287.


Agama lanzai WAGNER, LEACHÉ, MAZUCH & BÖHME, 2013


WAGNER, P., LEACHÉ, A., MAZUCH, T. & W. BÖHME (2013): Additions to the lizard diversity of the Horn of Africa: Two new species in the Agama spinosa group. - Amphibia-Reptilia, 34: 363-387.

The Horn of Africa is a center of diversity for African agamid lizards. Among the nine species of Agama occurring in the Horn of Africa, Agama spinosa is the most widely distributed. The A. spinosa group (sensu stricto, morphologically defined by possessing six clusters of spinose scales around the ear) contains two species: A. spinosa occurs from Egypt to Ethiopia and Somalia where it is replaced by the morphologically distinct and therefore sensu lato A. bottegi. Both species are only represented in museum collections by a small number of specimens from Ethiopia and Somalia, presumably the result of constant civil war that has plagued the region for decades and impeded field surveys. In this study, we examine species limits in the A. spinosa group using molecular genetic data (503 characters; mitochondrial 16S rRNA) and morphological data (67 characters). Deep divisions among populations of A. spinosa are supported by phylogenetic analyses and by multivariate analyses of morphometric data. Two new species from northern Somalia that differ from A. spinosa and A. bottegi are described. Furthermore, A. smithi, currently recognized as a synonymof A. agama, is re-assessed and recognized as a species of uncertain taxonomic position (i.e., incertae sedis). The results of this study improve our understanding of the evolution of agamid lizard diversity in the Horn of Africa, a significant biodiversity hotspot in Africa.


Agama lebretoni WAGNER, BAREJ & SCHMITZ 2009

Ostafrikanische Siedleragame

SANCHO, V. & O.S.G. PAUWELS (2015): An Accidental Importation of an Afrotropical Anthropophilic Lizard (Squamata: Agamidae: Agama lebretoni) into Spain. - Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc., 50 (12): 218-219.

WAGNER, P. (2009): The arid corridor from Middle East to Africa – Insights from the Agamidae. - Abstracts of presentations hold on DeAGAMIS the 1st International Symposium on Agamid Lizards. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 299.

WAGNER, P., BAREJ, M.F. & A. SCHMITZ (2009): Studies on African Agama VII. A new species of the Agama agama-group (Linnaeus, 1758) (Sauria: Agamidae) from Cameroon & Gabon, with comments on Agama mehelyi Tornier, 1902. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (4): 285-297.

Agama lionotus BOULENGER, 1896

Ostafrikanische Siedleragame

BÖHME, W., WAGNER, P., MALONZA, P., LÖTTERS, S & J. KÖHLER (2005): A new species of the Agama agama group (Squamata: Agamidae) from western Kenya, East Africa, with comments on Agama lionotus BOULENGER, 1896. – Russian Journal of Herpetology, 12: 143-150.

BREITFELD, M. (?): Kurze Bemerkungen zur Nahrung der Siedleragame. – Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift, Stuttgart. 754. (00.356)

BURMANN, A. (2006): Phylogenie & Taxonomie der Agamen (Agama lionotus-Komplex) Ostafrikas: morphologische & genetische Untersuchungen. – Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Bonn. 1-244.

KNAACK, J. (1999): Beobachtungen einer Eiablage der ostafrikanischen Siedleragame (Agama lionotus) am Kilifi Creek, Kenia. – herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 21 (123): 10-11.

The laying of eggs by the east african rainbow lizard (Agama lionotus) on the bank of the Kilifi Creek in kenya was observed and documented photographically. A gravid female inspected a clear sandy area of approx. 6 m², 1 m above the highest water level on 11 May 1996 at 10.25 am. From 10.32 am to 12.28 am the female dug a hole 140 mm deep with a Ø of 55-60 mm – stopping only for security pauses. The first and second deposits at 12.57 am and 1.12 pm were unseccesful. Between 1.45 pm and 4.12 pm further 7 eggs were deposited in the hole. At 4.35 pm the female began to cover the hole with her hindlegs – interrupted by a long pause. At 5.54 pm the cave with the 9 eggs was invisible; the female could be seen in the proximity of the breeding site for another four days.

MARSHALL, A.J. & R. HOOK (1960): The breeding biology of equatorial vertebrates: Reproduction of the lizard Agama agama lionotus BOULENGER at Lat. 0°01´N. –Proc.Zool. Soc.London, 134: 197-205.

SCHLEICHER, A. (2012): Seit wann fressen Agamen Erdnüsse – und Krokodile Brot? – TERRARIA/elaphe, 2012 (5): 50-51.

Agama lionotus lionotus

Ostafrikanische Siedleragame

DOBIEY, M. & P. WAGNER (2007): Agama lionotus lionotus BOULENGER, 1896 Ostafrikanische Siedleragame. – Rteptilia; Münster, 12 (4): 51-54.
Inhalt:
Taxonomie / Beschreibung / Verbreitung / Lebensweise.

KNAACK, J. (1999): Beobachtungen einer Eiablage der ostafrikanischen Siedleragame (Agama lionotus) am Kilifi Creek, Kenia. – herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 21 (123): 10-11. (02.655)

Abstract:
The laying of eggs by the east african rainbow lizard (Agama lionotus) on the bank of the Kilifi Creek in kenya was observed and documented photographically. A gravid female inspected a clear sandy area of approx. 6 m², 1 m above the highest water level on 11 May 1996 at 10.25 am. From 10.32 am to 12.28 am the female dug a hole 140 mm deep with a Ø of 55-60 mm – stopping only for security pauses. The first and second deposits at 12.57 am and 1.12 pm were unseccesful. Between 1.45 pm and 4.12 pm further 7 eggs were deposited in the hole. At 4.35 pm the female began to cover the hole with her hindlegs – interrupted by a long pause. At 5.54 pm the cave with the 9 eggs was invisible; the female could be seen in the proximity of the breeding site for another four days.

KOWALSKI, T. & M. BARTS (2007): Bildung eines Gabelschwanzes bei Agama lionotus lionotus BOULENGER, 1896. – Sauria, Berlin, 29 (1): 54.

MARSHALL, A.J. & R. HOOK (1960): The breeding biology of equatorial vertebrates: Reproduction of the lizard Agama agama lionotus BOULENGER at Lat. 0°01´N. –Proc.Zool. Soc.London, 134: 197-205.

WAGNER, P. (2007): Studies in African Agama I. On the taxonomic status of Agama lionotus usambarae BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE, 1928. – Herpetozoa, Wien, 20 (1/2): 69-73.


Agama lionotus dodomae

Ostafrikanische Siedleragame

GRUBERMANN, M.(2013): Einige fotografische Beobachtungen an Agamen in Kenia, Tansania, Malawi, Südafrika und Namibia. – Iguana, 26 (1): 23-33.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1923): Notes on East African lizards collected 1920-1923 with the description of two new races of Agama lionotus Blgr. - Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1923: 935-969.

THEOBALD, K. & J. SCHOLDEI (2012): Haltung und Nachzucht der Siedleragame Agama lionotus dodomae. – Iguana, 25 (2): 8-12.

Agama lionotus elgonis

Ostafrikanische Siedleragame


Agama lionotus ufipae

Ostafrikanische Siedleragame


Agama lucyae WAGNER & BAUER, 2011

WAGNER, P. & A. BAUER (2011): A new dwarf Agama (Sauria: Agamidae) from Ethiopia. – Breviora, 527: 1-19.

A new dwarf lizard of the genus Agama Daudin, 1802 (Sauria: Agamidae), is described from central Ethiopia. This dwarf agama (, 59 mm snout–vent length [SVL]) was compared with other dwarf congeners (, 65 mm SVL) in West, Central, and East Africa and to medium-sized agamas (, 92 mm SVL) occurring in the Horn of Africa. The new species is characterized by a homogeneous body scalation; keeled but nonmucronate dorsal scales; smooth ventral, gular, and upper head scales; and having the nasal scale on the canthus rostralis. It is morphologically well differentiated from all congeners to which it was compared in having a nuchal crest, few tufts of short spinose scales, and the nasal scale on the canthus rostralis and can further be identified by its large occipital scale, smooth gular and ventral scales, and keeled, but not strongly mucronate or spinose, dorsal scales. The new species may live in colonies, like many of the larger rock Agama species, and based on the presence of multiple age classes at the same time of year, it is probably not an annual species, as are some other dwarf Agama. The affinities of the new species are unclear but, on zoogeographic grounds, may lie with congeners to the west of the Rift Valley.


Agama montana BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE, 1928

Montane Rock Agama

BARBOUR, T. & A. LOVERIDGE (1928): A comparative study of the herpetological fauna of the Uluguru and Usambara mountains, Tanzania Territory with descriptions of new species. – Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge (Massachusetts), 50 (2): 85-265.


Agama mossambica PETERS, 1854

Mozambique Agama

ANANJEVA, N.B. & G. PETERS (1981): On the validity of Agama pawlowskii, Cernov et Dubinin, 1946. – Trud. Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSR, 101: 21-22.

CERNOV, S.A. & V.B. Dubinin (1946): A new endemic from the mountains of Central Asia, Agama pawlowskii sp. nov. (Reptilia, Sauria). – C.R. Acad.Sci. Moscow N.S., 52 (8): 741-743.


Agama mucosoensis HELLMICH, 1957

Siedleragame / Common Agama

HELMICH, W. (1957): Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise in Angola. - Veröff. Zool. Staatssammlung München, 5: 1-91.


Agama mwanzae LOVERIDGE, 1923


BARTS, M. (2003): Agama mwanzae LOVERIDGE, 1923 Ostafrikanische Felsenagame oder Mwanza-Flachkopfagame. – Reptilia, Münster, 8 n(4): 51-54.

BURMEISTER, E.G. (1989): Agama mwanzae erbeutet einen Finken. – Die Aquar. Terrar. Z., Stuttgart, 42 (10): 635.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1923): Notes on East African lizards colected 1920-1923 with the description of two new races of Agama lionotus Blgr. – Proceeding of the Zoological Society of London, 1923: 935-969.

MENEGON, M., SPAWLS, S., WAGNER, P. & J. BERADUCCII (2014): Agama mwanzae. - The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T170371A44810595.

YARNELL, R.W. & B.H. JONES (2001): Notes on the behaviour and Morphology of Agama mwanzae in northern Tanzania. – Afr. Herp. News, 33: 4-9.


Agama parafricana MEDIANNIKOV; TRAPÉ & TRAPÉ, 2012


MEDIANNIKOV, O., TRAPÉ, S. & J.-F. TRAPÉ (2012): A molecular study of the genus Agama (Squamata: Agamidae) in West Africa, with description of two new species and a review of the Ttxonomy, geographic distribution, and ecology of currently recognized species. - Russ. J. Herpetol., 19 (2): 115-142.

We conducted field studies in 15 West African countries and collected one thousand specimens of lizards of the genus Agama. Based on these collections, literature, molecular analysis of selected specimens, and examination of Linnean type-specimens of A. agama, we review the phylogeny, taxonomy, geographic distribution and ecology of the West African species of the genus Agama. Seventeen different species are recognized in the genus Agama in West Africa, northern Cameroon and Chad: A. africana, A. agama, A. boensis, A. boueti, A. boulengeri, A. castroviejoi, A. cristata, A. doriae benueensis, A. gracilimembris, A. insularis, A. lebretoni, A. paragama, A. sankaranica, A. weidholzi, and three new species. We design a lectotype for A. agama (Linnaeus, 1758) and attribute to A. wagneri, sp. nov., the populations from northern and central Cameroon of the A. agama complex. Agama parafricana, sp. nov., is described from wet savannah areas of Togo and Benin. Agama sylvanus from southern Ghana is a junior synonym of A. africana. Agama cf impalearis from northern Niger and Mali corresponds to an undescribed species. Agama boensis is resurrected from the synonymy of A. sankaranica. According to biogeographic areas, four species are Sahelian, seven species are Sudanian, four species are Guinean, and two species are ubiquitous.


Agama paragama GRANDISON, 1968

False Agama

GRANDISON, A.G.C. (1968): Nigerian lizards of the genus Agama (Sauria: Agamidae). – Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 17 (3): 67-90.


Agama persimilis PARKER, 1942

Similar Agama

PARKER, H. W. (1942): The lizards of British Somaliland. - Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 91: 1-101.


Agama picticauda (PETERS, 1877)


NUÑEZ, KRYSKO, K.L. & M.L. AVERY (2016): Confirmation of introduced Agama picticauda in Florida based on molecular analyses. – Bull. Florida Mus. Hat. Hist., 54 (9): 138-139.

As of 2010, Florida had the largest number of introduced and established non-indigenous herpetofaunal species in the world. With the advent of molecular methodologies, researchers now are able to test hypotheses regarding introduction pathways, species identity, and native range origins. African Agamas, Agama Daudin 1802, found in Florida are hypothesized to be the African Rainbow Lizard, A. agama africana Hallowell 1844, based on color patterns and hypothesized native range origins (i.e., Benin, Ghana, and Togo) of imported specimens for the pet trade. However, recent systematic studies within the native range of the Agama complex have resulted in multiple taxonomic revisions, which calls into question the species identity of introduced populations in Florida. The purpose of this study is to determine the species identity of African agamas within Florida, as well as the native range origins of Florida populations. We conducted a comparative maximum likelihood analysis between individuals from Florida and individuals from the native range. Based on our results we determined that the species found in Florida is Agama picticauda from western Africa.

OFORI, B.Y., MARTEY, P. & D. ATTUQUAYEFIO (2018): Observations of the African rainbow lizard (Agama picticaudaPeters 1877) from Ghana feeding on bread. – Herp. Notes, 11: 955-957.

OFORI, B.Y., MARTEY, P., MUSAH, Y. & D. ATTUQUAYEFIO (2018): Tail bifurcation in the African Rainbow lizard (Agama picticauda Peters 1877) from Ghana, West Africa.Herp. Notes, 11: 843-845.

PETERS, W. (1877): Übersicht der Amphibien aus Chinchoxo (Westafrika), welche von der Africanischen Gesellschaft dem Berliner zoologischen Museum übergeben sind. – Mber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877 (October): 611-620.


Agama planiceps PETERS, 1862

Namib Rock Agama

BILLAWER, W.H. & N.J.L. HEIDEMAN (1996): A comparative analysis of diurnal behavioural activities in males of Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps in Windhoek, Namibia. – Journ. Herpet. Ass. Afr., 45 (2): 68-73.

COWLEY, T. & P. CUNNINGHAM (2004): Agama planiceps PETERS, 1862 as prey item for Black Mongoose Galerella (sanguinea) nigrata [Short Note]. - Herpetozoa, 17 (1/2): 86.

CUNNINGHAM, P. (2011): Agama planiceps (Peters, 1862) Namibian Rock Agama. Diet. – Afr. Herp News, (55): 19-20.

GRUBERMANN, M.(2013): Einige fotografische Beobachtungen an Agamen in Kenia, Tansania, Malawi, Südafrika und Namibia. – Iguana, 26 (1): 23-33.

HAMMERMANN, G. (1971): Belevenissen met enkele hagedissen. - Lacerta, 29 (4): 41-42.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1990): Life History Note: Agama planiceps: Reproduction. – Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr., 37: 50.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1992): Comparative reproductive biology, and aspects of behaviour and ecology of Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) in the Windhoek area. – Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stellenbosch.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1993): Social organization and behaviour of Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) during the breeding season. – J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 42: 28-31.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1994): Reproduction in Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps females from Windhoek, Namibia. – Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 15: 351-361. (00.353)

Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps females were reproductively active during summer, which is the rainy season in Namibia. Both species were iteroparous; clutch size and relative clutch mass in the smaller A. a. aculeata were significantly larger than in A. p. planiceps. Egg and newborn hatchling size of A. a. planiceps on the other hand were significantly greater than in A. a. aculeata. It is suggested that these differences may have evolved as a result of different strategies which the two species possibly employ to cope with predation pressure, namely, evasion through crypsis in A. a. aculeata and through speed of escape in A. p. planiceps.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1995): Is Agama planiceps planiceps better adapted for high running speed and agility than Agama aculeata aculeata? Inferences from their morphology. – Cimbebasia, 14: 17-21.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1995): The relationship between reproduction, and abdominal fat body and liver condition in Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) males in Windhoek, Namibia. – Journal of Arid Environments, 31 (1): 105-113.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (1995): Nematode incidence in Agama aculeata aculeata and Agama planiceps planiceps in the Windhoek area, Namibia. – Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa, 44 (1): 22-23.

HEIDEMAN, N.J.L. (2002): A comparison of the breeding and non-breeding season diet of Agama aculeata and Agama planiceps (Reptilia: Agamidae) in Windhoek, Namibia. - Journal of Herpetology, 36 (3): 515-520.

PETERS, W.C.H. (1862): Description of Agama planiceps. – In: “Übersicht einiger von dem, durch seine afrikanische Sprachforschungen, rühmlichst bekannten, Hrn. Missionär C.H. Hahn bei Neu-Barmen, im Hererolande, and der Westküste von Afrika, im 21˚ südl. Br. gesammelten Amphibien, nebst Beschreibungen der neuen Arten”. - Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1862: 15-26.


Agama robecchii GRANDISON, 1968

Robecchi´s Agama

BOULENGER, G.A. (1891): Description of Agama robecchii. – In: “On some Reptiles collected by Sig. L. Bricchetti Robecchi in Somaliland”. - Ann. Mus. St. nat. Genova (2) 12: 5-15.

CHERCHI, M.A. (1958): Note su Agama robecchii Blgr. (Sauria). – Atti Soc. ital. Sci. nat., 97: 233-238.


Agama rueppelli VAILLANT, 1882

Arboreal Agama

VAILLANT, L. (1882): Description of Agama rueppelli. – In: “Reptiles et Batraciens. in: Révoil: Mission G. Révoil aux pays Çomalis, Faune et Flore. Faune et Flore des Pays Çomalis, Afr. orient”., 25 pp, 3 plates.


Agama rueppelli rueppelli VAILLANT, 1882

Arboreal Agama

PARKER, H.W. (1932): Scientific results of the Cambridge expedition to the east African lakes, 1930-31. 5. Reptiles and amphibians. - Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 38: 213-229.


Agama rueppelli occidentalis PARKER, 1932

Arboreal Agama

PARKER, H.W. (1932): Scientific results of the Cambridge expedition to the east African lakes, 1930-31. 5. Reptiles and amphibians. - Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 38: 213-229.


Agama rueppelli septentrionalis PARKER, 1932

Arboreal Agama

PARKER, H.W. (1932): Scientific results of the Cambridge expedition to the east African lakes, 1930-31. 5. Reptiles and amphibians. - Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 38: 213-229.


Agama sankaranica CHABANAUD, 1918

Senegal Agama

CHABANAUD, P. (1918): Étude complémentaire de deux Agama de l'Afrique occidentale et description de quatre espèces nouvelles de reptiles de la même région. - Bull. Mus. nation. Hist. nat. Paris, 24: 104-112

JOGER, U. (1979): Zur Ökologie und Verbreitung wenig bekannter Agamen Westafrikas (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main) 15 (1): 31-52. (00.609)

Zusammenfassung:
Die noch sehr ungenügenden ökologischen und zoogeographischen Kenntnisse über die Agamen der westafrikanischen Savanne soll diese Studie erweitern helfen. Die vier hier behandelten Arten erweisen sich in bezug auf ihren bevorzugten Biotop als stenök und allotop. Sie weichen der zwischenartlichen Konkurrenz durch ökologische Sonderung aus.
Agama boueti bestätigt sich durch den Neunachweis aus der Republik Niger als Bewohner sandiger Flächen zwischen dem Südrand der Sahara und dem Übergangsgebiet Sahel-/Sudan-Savanne. Die südlich daran anschließenden offenen Landschaften werden von A. sankaranica bewohnt. Die myrmecophage Zwergform A. weidholzi löst A. sankaranica auf dem laubbedeckten Boden der Trockenwälder zwischen dem Oberlauf des Niger und der Casamance ab. Agama boulengeri ist ein Endemit der variskischen Faltungsgebiete zwischen dem mauretanischen Adrar und dem oberen Senegal, wo die Art sich nur auf trockenheißen Felsplateaus gegen die ähnlich eingenischte A. agama behaupten kann.
Die beobachtete Aufnahme sukkulenter Pflanzenteile durch A. boulengeri und A. boueti wird als Anpassung an das Leben in Trockenbiotopen gedeutet, was durch die Tatsache gestützt wird, daß A. boueti im feuchten Küstengebiet keine Pflanzennahrung aufnimmt.
Die bodenlebenden Arten sind solitär, A. boulengeri zeigt Ansätze zu sozialer Gruppenbildung.
Die Fortpflanzung scheint bei allen Arten in der Regenzeit zu erfolgen, doch fehlen exakte Belege.
Zahlreiche Probleme harren noch ihrer Lösung, so zum Beispiel bei A. weidholzi die Bedeutung der auffälligen Farbmale und das augenscheinliche Fehlen von Adulten in der Trockenzeit.


Agama somalica WAGNER, LEACHÉ, MAZUCH & BÖHME, 2013


WAGNER, P., LEACHÉ, A., MAZUCH, T. & W. BÖHME (2013): Additions to the lizard diversity of the Horn of Africa: Two new species in the Agama spinosa group. - Amphibia-Reptilia, 34: 363-387.

The Horn of Africa is a center of diversity for African agamid lizards. Among the nine species of Agama occurring in the Horn of Africa, Agama spinosa is the most widely distributed. The A. spinosa group (sensu stricto, morphologically defined by possessing six clusters of spinose scales around the ear) contains two species: A. spinosa occurs from Egypt to Ethiopia and Somalia where it is replaced by the morphologically distinct and therefore sensu lato A. bottegi. Both species are only represented in museum collections by a small number of specimens from Ethiopia and Somalia, presumably the result of constant civil war that has plagued the region for decades and impeded field surveys. In this study, we examine species limits in the A. spinosa group using molecular genetic data (503 characters; mitochondrial 16S rRNA) and morphological data (67 characters). Deep divisions among populations of A. spinosa are supported by phylogenetic analyses and by multivariate analyses of morphometric data. Two new species from northern Somalia that differ from A. spinosa and A. bottegi are described. Furthermore, A. smithi, currently recognized as a synonymof A. agama, is re-assessed and recognized as a species of uncertain taxonomic position (i.e., incertae sedis). The results of this study improve our understanding of the evolution of agamid lizard diversity in the Horn of Africa, a significant biodiversity hotspot in Africa.


Agama spinosa GRAY, 1831

Lanza´s Spiny Agama

HUSSEIN, H.K. & A.D.M. DARWISH (2000): Community structure, microhabitat use, sex ratio and sexual dimorphism in the agamid lizard, Agama agama spinosa. – Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 3: 1700-1704.

WAGNER, P., LEACHÉ, A., MAZUCH, T. & W. BÖHME (2013): Additions to the lizard diversity of the Horn of Africa: Two new species in the Agama spinosa group. - Amphibia-Reptilia, 34 (3): 363-387.

The Horn of Africa is a center of diversity for African agamid lizards. Among the nine species of Agama occurring in the Horn of Africa, Agama spinosa is the most widely distributed. The A. spinosa group (sensu stricto, morphologically defined by possessing six clusters of spinose scales around the ear) contains two species: A. spinosa occurs from Egypt to Ethiopia and Somalia where it is replaced by the morphologically distinct and therefore sensu lato A. bottegi. Both species are only represented in museum collections by a small number of specimens from Ethiopia and Somalia, presumably the result of constant civil war that has plagued the region for decades and impeded field surveys. In this study, we examine species limits in the A. spinosa group using molecular genetic data (503 characters; mitochondrial 16S rRNA) and morphological data (67 characters). Deep divisions among populations of A. spinosa are supported by phylogenetic analyses and by multivariate analyses of morphometric data. Two new species from northern Somalia that differ from A. spinosa and A. bottegi are described. Furthermore, A. smithi, currently recognized as a synonymof A. agama, is re-assessed and recognized as a species of uncertain taxonomic position (i.e., incertae sedis). The results of this study improve our understanding of the evolution of agamid lizard diversity in the Horn of Africa, a significant biodiversity hotspot in Africa.

Agama sylvana MACDONALD, 1981


MACDONALD, M.A. (1981): A new species of agamid lizard from Ghana. – J. Zool., London, 193: 191-199.


Agama tassiliensis GENIEZ, PADIAL & CROCHET, 2011


GENIEZ, P., PADIAL, J.M. & P.-A.CROCHET (2011): Systematics of north African Agama (Reptilia: Agamidae): a new species from the central Saharan mountains. – Zootaxa, 3098: 26-46.

We studied the taxonomic status of the north African Agama species A. impalearis, A. castroviejoi, and A. boueti. The study of recently collected specimens and museum material, as well as phylogenetic analyses of a short 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment, revealed the presence of an undescribed species in Adrar des Ifoghas (Mali), Aïr Mountains (Niger), Ahaggar Mountains (Algeria) and Tassili n’Ajjer (Algeria, Lybia), previously mistaken either as A. impalearis or A. agama. The new species, Agama tassiliensis n. sp., clearly belongs to the impalearis – boueti – spinosa species group but differs from these species, among other characters, by its red, reddish-orange or orange vertebral stripe in males, long and angular head, long limbs and toes (with 4th toe usually slightly longer than 3rd toe), long but low nuchal crest made of 10 to 15 spines (rarely 8–9 spines) and large number of supralabials (10–16, usually around 12). Interspecific uncorrected pdistances based on the 16S rDNA gene fragment are high, ranging from 3.9% between A. boueti and A. impalearis to 7.9% between A. spinosa and A. impalearis. The new species is sympatric with A. boueti at least in the Aïr Mountains and exhibits average mtDNA divergences of 6.2%, 7.4%, and 7.6% with A. spinosa, A. impalearis, and A. boueti, respectively. Agama boueti is paraphyletic relative to A. castroviejoi in the mtDNA tree, and mtDNA genetic divergences between populations of both species are lower than 1.0%, suggesting that A. castroviejoi is better treated as a junior synonym of A. boueti pending more detailed analyses. Scattered mountain ranges in the Sahara seem to have promoted lineage divergence and ultimately speciation in this group. Further work should be done to study species taxonomy and evolution in those areas.


Agama turuensis LOVERIDGE, 1932

WAGNER, P., KRAUSE, P. & W. BÖHME (2008): Studies on African Agama III. Resurrection of Agama agama turuensis LOVERIDGE, 1932 (Squamata: Agamidae) from synonymy and elevatin to species rank. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 44 (1): 35-42.

WAGNER, P., KRAUSE, P. & W. BÖHME (2008): Studien an afrikanischen Agama III.Revalidierung von Agama agama turuensis LOVERIDGE, 1932 (Squamata: Agamidae) und Erhebung in den Artrang. – Der Salamander, Rheinbach, 4 (1): 35-42.
Zusammenfassung:
Neues Material von Agama agama LINNAEUS, 1758, vom Mount Hanang, Tansania erweist sich als nicht zum Typenmaterial von Agama agama turuensis LOVERIDGE, 1932, unterscheidbar, einem Taxon, das bislang als Synonym von Agama lionotus elgonis LÖNNBERG, 1922, angesehen wurde. Unsere vergleichende morphologische Untersuchung zeigt, dass turuensis die größte Ähnlichkeit mit Agama mwanzae LOVERIDGE, 1923 und Agama kaimosae LOVERIDGE, 1935, aufweist und sich sowohl von A. agama als auch A. lionotus BOULENGER, 1896, unterscheidet. Agama turuensis kann gleichzeitig weder A. mwanzae noch A. kaimosae zugewiesen werden und muss daher als eigene Art betrachtet werden.


Agama weidholzi WETTSTEIN, 1932

Gambia Agama

BÖHME, W. (2005): Vorkommen von Agama weidholzi WETTSTEIN, 1932 in Gambia, Westafrika. – Der Salamander, Rheinbach, 1 (3): 155-157.

Zusammenfassung:
Agama weidholzi WETTSTEIN, 1932, wird zum ersten Mal aus Gambia nachgewiesen. Der neue Fundort, Bwiam am Südufer des Gambie, ist der westlichste Fundpunkt im Verbreitungsgebiet der Art. A. weidholzi ist einer der seltenen Regionalendemiten des ariden Westafrikas. Der neue Nachweis basiert auf einem adulten Weibchen, das im Januar (Trockenzeit) gefunden wurde. Damit erscheint die bisherige Annahme einer saisonalen phänologischen Abwechslung zwischen Altersklassen oder sogar ein einjähriger Lebenszyklus als unwahrscheinlich.


BÖHME, W. (2005): Presence of Agama weidholzi WETTSTEIN 1932 in The Gambia, West Africa. – Salamandra, Rheinbach, 41 (3): 155-157.

Agama weidholzi WETTSTEIN, 1932 is for the first time recorded for The Gambia. The new locality, Bwiam on the southern shore of the Gambia River, is the westernmost locality of the species’ distribution area. A. weidholzi is one of the rare regional endemics of arid West Africa. The new record is based on an adult female collected in January (dry season), suggesting that former assumptions of a seasonal phenological displacement between age classes, or even an uniannual life cycle, in this species are unlikely.

GRANDISON, A.G.C. (1969): Agama weidholzi (Sauria: Agamidae) of West Africa and its relationship to Agama gracilimembris. – Bull. Inst. Fundament. Afr. noire, sér. A, Dakar, 30 (2): 666-675.

JOGER, U. (1979): Zur Ökologie und Verbreitung wenig bekannter Agamen Westafrikas (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae). – Salamandra, Frankfurt/Main) 15 (1): 31-52. (00.609)

Zusammenfassung:
Die noch sehr ungenügenden ökologischen und zoogeographischen Kenntnisse über die Agamen der westafrikanischen Savanne soll diese Studie erweitern helfen. Die vier hier behandelten Arten erweisen sich in bezug auf ihren bevorzugten Biotop als stenök und allotop. Sie weichen der zwischenartlichen Konkurrenz durch ökologische Sonderung aus.
Agama boueti bestätigt sich durch den Neunachweis aus der Republik Niger als Bewohner sandiger Flächen zwischen dem Südrand der Sahara und dem Übergangsgebiet Sahel-/Sudan-Savanne. Die südlich daran anschließenden offenen Landschaften werden von A. sankaranica bewohnt. Die myrmecophage Zwergform A. weidholzi löst A. sankaranica auf dem laubbedeckten Boden der Trockenwälder zwischen dem Oberlauf des Niger und der Casamance ab. Agama boulengeri ist ein Endemit der variskischen Faltungsgebiete zwischen dem mauretanischen Adrar und dem oberen Senegal, wo die Art sich nur auf trockenheißen Felsplateaus gegen die ähnlich eingenischte A. agama behaupten kann.
Die beobachtete Aufnahme sukkulenter Pflanzenteile durch A. boulengeri und A. boueti wird als Anpassung an das Leben in Trockenbiotopen gedeutet, was durch die Tatsache gestützt wird, daß A. boueti im feuchten Küstengebiet keine Pflanzennahrung aufnimmt.
Die bodenlebenden Arten sind solitär, A. boulengeri zeigt Ansätze zu sozialer Gruppenbildung.
Die Fortpflanzung scheint bei allen Arten in der Regenzeit zu erfolgen, doch fehlen exakte Belege.
Zahlreiche Probleme harren noch ihrer Lösung, so zum Beispiel bei A. weidholzi die Bedeutung der auffälligen Farbmale und das augenscheinliche Fehlen von Adulten in der Trockenzeit.

WETTSTEIN, O. (1932): Eine neue Eidechse aus Senegambien. – Zool. Anz., Leipzig, 99: 304.

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